European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 94, Issue 1–2, pp 168–174 | Cite as

A new device for controlled eccentric overloading in training and rehabilitation

Original Article


The aim of this work was to evaluate a device that allows for eccentric overload to be applied under controlled and safe conditions and it is applicable in exercises commonly used in training and rehabilitation. The machine contains a barbell, which is lowered and raised by a motor, following a predetermined velocity profile. It is capable of handling heavy loads (>500 kg) and is instrumented with a sensor to measure the velocity of the barbell and two scales to measure the vertical component of the ground reaction force. The velocity recordings of the built-in displacement sensor were found to correspond well with those obtained using a motion-capture system. Applying known weights on each scale demonstrated linearity with respect to magnitude and independence regarding location of application. The velocity of the barbell was found to be dependent on the load on the barbell and on the resisting force produced by the individual training in the machine. The combined man–machine reliability was tested using a group of habitually active males (n=13, 28–55 years) performing squats. Peak voluntary resisting force and position at peak resistance were recorded on two occasions, showing no significant differences and a coefficient of variation of 9% and 22%, respectively. Preliminary observations from training in the machine have been positive both for increasing performance in top athletes and for causing pain relief in patients with diffuse knee problems. The possibility of feedback of the force under each foot makes individual dosage of training load possible, which is valuable, e.g. in rehabilitation of a unilateral injury.


Testing Sports Biomechanics Strength training Tendinopathy 



Originators of the Bromsman machine are Leif Larsson and Ulf Arnesson, who, together with Per Hågensen, have shared their knowledge on the machine’s details. The study was financially supported by the Swedish Sports Federation and the Swedish Centre of Sports Research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Frohm
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kjartan Halvorsen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alf Thorstensson
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Elite Sports Centre, Swedish Sports ConfederationBosönSweden
  2. 2.Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical SciencesKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Biomechanics and Motor Control Laboratory, Department of Sport and Health SciencesUniversity College of Physical Education and SportsStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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