European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 333–338

Prior endurance exercise attenuates growth hormone response to subsequent resistance exercise

  • Kazushige Goto
  • Masao Higashiyama
  • Naokata Ishii
  • Kaoru Takamatsu
Original Article

Abstract

This study examined the influence of prior endurance exercise on hormonal responses to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten males exercised on a cycle ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake for 60 min and subsequently completed a resistance exercise (bench and leg press, four sets at ten repetitions maximum with an interset rest period of 90 s). Alternatively, the subjects performed the protocol on a separate day with prior endurance exercise limited to 5 min. Blood was obtained before and after the endurance exercise, and 10, 20, and 30 min after the resistance exercise. Maximal isometric torque measured before and after endurance and resistance exercises showed no significant difference between trials. No significant difference was seen in the concentrations of glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol between the trials, but free fatty acids (FFA) and growth hormone (GH) increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) after 60 min of endurance exercise. Conversely, after the resistance exercise, GH was attenuated by 60 min of prior exercise (P<0.05). These results indicate that the GH response to resistance exercise is attenuated by prior endurance exercise. This effect might be caused by the increase in blood FFA concentration at the beginning of resistance exercise.

Keywords

Anabolic hormone Catabolic hormone Free fatty acids Negative feedback 

References

  1. Alvarez CV, Mallo F, Burguera B, Cacicedo L, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF (1991) Evidence for a direct pituitary inhibition by free fatty acids of in vivo growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 53:185–189Google Scholar
  2. Cappon J, Brasel JA, Mohan S, Cooper DM (1994) Effect of brief exercise on circulating insulin-like growth factor I. J Appl Physiol 76:2490–2496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Casanueva FF, Villanueva L, Dieguez C, Diaz Y, Cabranes JA, Szoke B, Scanlon MF, Schally AV, Fernandez-Cruz A (1987) Free fatty acids block growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone-stimulated GH secretion in man directly at the pituitary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:634–642Google Scholar
  4. Consitt LA, Copeland JL, Tremblay MS (2001) Hormone responses to resistance vs. endurance exercise in premenopausal females. Can J Appl Physiol 26:574–587Google Scholar
  5. Durand RJ, Castracane VD, Hollander DB, Tryniecki JL, Bamman MM, O’Neal S, Hebert EP, Kraemer RR (2003) Hormonal responses from concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:937–943Google Scholar
  6. Florini JR, Ewton DZ, Coolican SA (1996) Growth hormone and the insulin-like growth factor system in myogenesis. Endocr Rev 17:481–517CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gordon SE, Kraemer WJ, Vos NH, Lynch JM, Knuttgen HG (1994) Effect of acid-base balance on the growth hormone response to acute high-intensity cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol 76:821–829Google Scholar
  8. Hagberg JM, Seals DR, Yerg JE, Gavin J, Gingerich R, Premachandra B, Holloszy JO (1988) Metabolic responses to exercise in young and older athletes and sedentary men. J Appl Physiol 65:900–908Google Scholar
  9. Hagen TC, Lawrence AM, Kirsteins L (1972) Autoregulation of growth hormone secretion in normal subjects. Metabolism 21:603–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A (1995) Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in men and women at different ages. Int J Sports Med 16:507–513Google Scholar
  11. Imaki T, Shibasaki T, Masuda A, Hotta M, Yamauchi N, Demura H, Shizume K, Wakabayashi I, Ling N (1986) The effect of glucose and free fatty acids on growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor-mediated GH secretion in rats. Endocrinology 118:2390–2394Google Scholar
  12. Jaffe CA, Ocampo-Lim B, Guo W, Krueger K, Sugahara I, DeMott-Friberg R, Bermann M, Barkan AL (1998) Regulatory mechanisms of growth hormone secretion are sexually dimorphic. J Clin Invest 102:153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Kruk B, Szczpaczewska M, Opaszowski B, Stupnicka E, Bicz B, Nazar K (1992) Metabolic, body temperature and hormonal responses to repeated periods of prolonged cycle-ergometer exercise in men. Eur J Appl Physiol 64:26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kanaley JA, Weltman JY, Veldhuis JD, Rogol AD, Hartman ML, Weltman A (1997) Human growth hormone response to repeated bouts of aerobic exercise. J Appl Physiol 83:1756–1761Google Scholar
  15. Kjaer M, Secher NH, Bach FW, Sheikh S, Galbo H (1989) Hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise in humans: effect of sensory nervous blockade. Am J Physiol 257:E95–E101Google Scholar
  16. Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K (1999) Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 402:656–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kok P, Buijs MM, Kok SW, Van Ierssel IH, Frolich M, Roelfsema F, Voshol PJ, Meinders AE, Pijl H (2004) Acipimox enhances spontaneous growth hormone secretion in obese women. Am J Physiol 286:R693–R698Google Scholar
  18. Kraemer WJ, Marchitelli L, Gordon SE, Harman E, Dziados JE, Mello R, Frykman P, McCurry D, Fleck SJ (1990) Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise protocols. J Appl Physiol 69:1442–1450Google Scholar
  19. Lanfranco F, Giordano R, Pellegrino M, Gianotti L, Ramunni J, Picu A, Baldi M, Ghigo E, Arvat E (2004) Free fatty acids exert an inhibitory effect on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1385–1390Google Scholar
  20. Lanzi R, Manzoni MF, Andreotti AC, Malighetti ME, Bianchi E, Sereni LP, Caumo A, Luzi L, Pontiroli AE (1997) Evidence for an inhibitory effect of physiological levels of insulin on the growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2239–2243Google Scholar
  21. Maccario M, Procopio M, Loche S, Cappa M, Martina V, Camanni F, Ghigo E (1994) Interaction of free fatty acids and arginine on growth hormone secretion in man. Metabolism 43:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McCall GE, Byrnes WC, Fleck SJ, Dickinson A, Kraemer WJ (1999) Acute and chronic hormonal responses to resistance training designed to promote muscle hypertrophy. Can J Appl Physiol 24:96–107Google Scholar
  23. Meikle AW, Benson SJ, Liu XH, Boam WD, Stringham JD (1989) Nonesterified fatty acids modulate steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. Am J Physiol 257:E937–E942Google Scholar
  24. Murai JT, Mendel CM, Siiteri PK (1991) Free fatty acids do not influence the concentrations of free steroid hormones in serum under physiological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:137–139Google Scholar
  25. Nakamoto JM, Gertner JM, Press CM, Hintz RL, Rosenfeld RG, Genel M (1986) Suppression of the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine and GH-releasing hormone by exogenous GH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:822–826Google Scholar
  26. Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E, Wolfe RR (1993) Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol 265:E380–E391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Smilios I, Pilianidis T, Karamouzis M, Tokmakidis SP (2003) Hormonal responses after various resistance exercise protocols. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:644–654Google Scholar
  28. Stokes KA, Nevill ME, Hall GM, Lakomy HK (2002) Growth hormone responses to repeated maximal cycle ergometer exercise at different pedaling rates. J Appl Physiol 92:602–608Google Scholar
  29. Van Dam PS, Smid HE, de Vries WR, Niesink M, Bolscher E, Waasdorp EJ, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF, Koppeschaar HP (2000) Reduction of free fatty acids by acipimox enhances the growth hormone (GH) responses to GH-releasing peptide 2 in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:4706–4711Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazushige Goto
    • 1
  • Masao Higashiyama
    • 1
  • Naokata Ishii
    • 2
  • Kaoru Takamatsu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and SciencesUniversity of TokyoKomaba, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations