European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 277–284

The effect of inspiratory muscle training upon maximum lactate steady-state and blood lactate concentration

Original Article

Abstract

Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration ([Lac]B). The present study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 12 healthy, non-endurance-trained male participants were assigned in equal numbers to an experimental (IMT) or sham training control (placebo) group. Cycling power output at MLSS was initially identified using a lactate minimum protocol followed by a series of constant power output rides (2.5% increments) of 29.5 min duration; MLSS was reassessed following six weeks of IMT or sham IMT. Maximum inspiratory mouth pressure increased significantly (26%) in the IMT group, but remained unchanged in the placebo group. The cycling power output corresponding to MLSS remained unchanged in both groups after the intervention. After IMT, [Lac]B decreased significantly at MLSS power in the IMT group [−1.17 (1.01) mmol l−1 after 29.5 min of cycling; mean (SD)], but remained unchanged in the placebo group [+0.37 (1.66) mmol l−1]. These data support previous observations that IMT results in a decrease in [Lac]B at a given intensity of exercise. That such a decrease in [Lac]B was not associated with a substantial (>2.5%) increase in MLSS power is a new finding suggesting that RMT-induced increases in exercise tolerance and reductions in [Lac]B are not ascribable to a substantial increase in the ‘lactate threshold’.

Keywords

Blood lactate Ergogenic Lactate threshold Respiratory muscle training 

References

  1. Bigard AX, Brunet A, Serrurier B, Guezennec CY, Monod H (1992) Effects of endurance training at high-altitude on diaphragm muscle properties. Pflugers Arch 422:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billat VL, Sirvent P, Py G, Koralsztein JP, Mercier J (2003) The concept of maximal lactate steady state: a bridge between biochemistry, physiology and sport science. Sports Med 33:407–426Google Scholar
  3. Billat V, Sirvent P, Lepretre PM, Koralsztein JP (2004) Training effect on performance, substrate balance and blood lactate concentration at maximal lactate steady state in master endurance-runners. Pflugers Arch 447:875–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonen A, McCullagh KJ, Putman CT, Hultman E, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJ (1998) Short-term training increases human muscle MCT1 and femoral venous lactate in relation to muscle lactate. Am J Physiol 274:E102–107Google Scholar
  5. Boutellier U, Piwko P (1992) The respiratory system as an exercise limiting factor in normal sedentary subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 64:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boutellier U, Buchel R, Kundert A, Spengler C (1992) The respiratory system as an exercise limiting factor in normal trained subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 65:347–353Google Scholar
  7. Caine MP, McConnell AK (2000) Development and evaluation of a pressure threshold inspiratory muscle trainer for use in the context of sports performance. J Sports Eng 3:149–159Google Scholar
  8. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubouchaud H, Butterfield GE, Wolfel EE, Bergman BC, Brooks GA (2000) Endurance training, expression, and physiology of LDH, MCT1, and MCT4 in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 278:E571–579Google Scholar
  10. Fregosi RF, Dempsey JA (1986) Effects of exercise in normoxia and acute hypoxia on respiratory muscle metabolites. J Appl Physiol 60:1274–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harms CA, Dempsey JA (1999) Cardiovascular consequences of exercise hyperpnea. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 27:37–62Google Scholar
  12. Hickson RC, Dvorak BA, Gorostiaga EM, Kurowski TT, Foster C (1988) Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 65:2285–2290Google Scholar
  13. Hoff J, Helgerud J, Wisloff U (1999) Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:870–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holloszy JO, Coyle EF (1984) Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. J Appl Physiol 56:831–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Maillard JO, Burdet L, Melle G van, Fitting JW (1998) Reproducibility of twitch mouth pressure, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, and maximal inspiratory pressure. Eur Respir J 11:901–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marcinik EJ, Potts J, Schlabach G, Will S, Dawson P, Hurley BF (1991) Effects of strength training on lactate threshold and endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:739–743Google Scholar
  17. Markov G, Spengler CM, Knopfli-Lenzin C, Stuessi C, Boutellier U (2001) Respiratory muscle training increases cycling endurance without affecting cardiovascular responses to exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 85:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Manohar M, Hassan AS (1990) Diaphragm does not produce ammonia or lactate during high-intensity short-term exercise. Am J Physiol 259:H1185–H1189Google Scholar
  19. Manohar M, Hassan AS (1991) Diaphragmatic energetics during prolonged exhaustive exercise. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:415–418Google Scholar
  20. McConnell AK, Romer LM (2004) Respiratory muscle training in healthy humans: resolving the controversy. Int J Sports Med 25:284–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Phillips SM, Green HJ, Tarnopolsky MA, Grant SM (1995) Increased clearance of lactate after short-term training in men. J Appl Physiol 79:1862–1869Google Scholar
  22. Pilegaard H, Domino K, Noland T, Juel C, Hellsten Y, Halestrap AP, Bangsbo J (1999) Effect of high-intensity exercise training on lactate/H+ transport capacity in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 276:E255–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Powers SK, Criswell D, Lieu F-K, Dodd S, Silverman H (1992a) Diaphragmatic fibre type specific adaptation. Respir Physiol 89:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Powers SK, Grinton S, Lawler J, Criswell D, Dodd S (1992b) High intensity exercise training-induced metabolic alterations in respiratory muscles. Respir Physiol 89:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Powers SK, Wade M, Criswell D, Herb RA, Dodd S, Hussain R, Martin D (1995) Role of beta-adrenergic mechanisms in exercise training-induced metabolic changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle. Int J Sports Med16:13–18Google Scholar
  26. Romer LM, McConnell AK (2003) Specificity and reversibility of inspiratory muscle adaptations following inspiratory muscle training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:237–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Romer LM, McConnell AK, Jones DA (2002a) Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time trial performance in trained cyclists. J Sports Sci 20:547–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Romer LM, McConnell AK, Jones DA (2002b) Effects of inspiratory muscle training upon recovery time during high intensity, repetitive sprint activity. Int J Sports Med 23:353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith CG, Jones AM (2001) The relationship between critical velocity, maximal lactate steady-state velocity and lactate turnpoint velocity in runners. Eur J Appl Physiol 85:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spengler CM, Roos M, Laube SM, Boutellier U (1999) Decreased exercise blood lactate concentrations after respiratory endurance training in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 79:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stockhausen W, Grathwohl D, Burklin C, Spranz P, Keul J (1997) Stage duration and increase of work load in incremental testing on a cycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 76:295–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tegtbur U, Busse MW, Braumann KM (1993) Estimation of an individual equilibrium between lactate production and catabolism during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:620–627Google Scholar
  33. Tesch PA, Komi PV, Hakkinen K (1987) Enzymatic adaptations consequent to long-term strength training. Int J Sports Med 8 [Suppl 1]:66–69Google Scholar
  34. Tesch PA, Thorsson A, Colliander EB (1990) Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on skeletal muscle substrates, enzyme activities and capillary supply. Acta Physiol Scand 140:575–580Google Scholar
  35. Volianitis S, McConnell AK, Koutedakis Y, McNaughton L, Backx K, Jones DA (2001) Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:803–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wetter TJ, Dempsey JA (2000) Pulmonary system and endurance exercise. In: Shephard RJ, Astrand P.-O. (eds) Endurance in sport. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 52–67Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sport Sciences, School of Sport and EducationBrunel UniversityUxbridgeUK
  2. 2.Division of Sport Science, School of ScienceThe Nottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations