Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 93, Issue 4, pp 429–434 | Cite as

Effects of exercise training and detraining on cutaneous microvascular function in man: the regulatory role of endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature

  • Jong-Shyan Wang
Original Article

Abstract

This study investigated how exercise training and detraining affect the cutaneous microvascular function and the regulatory role of endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature. Ten healthy sedentary subjects cycled on an ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) for 30 min daily, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks, and then detrained for 8 weeks. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite plus nitrate) were measured by a microplate fluorometer. The cutaneous microvascular perfusion responses to six graded levels of iontophoretically applied 1% acetylcholine (ACh) and 1% sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the forearm skin were determined by laser Doppler. After training, (1) resting heart rate and blood pressure were reduced, whereasO2max, skin blood flow and cutaneous vascular conductance to acute exercise were enhanced; (2) plasma NO metabolite levels and ACh-induced cutaneous perfusion were increased; (3) skin vascular responses to SNP did not change significantly. However, detraining reversed these effects on cutaneous microvascular function and plasma NO metabolite levels. The results suggest that endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature is enhanced by moderate exercise training and reversed to the pretraining state with detraining.

Keywords

Skin blood flow Physical conditioning Nitric oxide 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan, Republic of China (grants NSC 88-2314-B-182–080). The authors would like to thank the volunteers for their enthusiastic participation in this study.

References

  1. Algotsson A (1996) Serum lipids and lipoproteins are correlated to skin vessel reactivity in healthy women. J Intern Med 239:147–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974) Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 20:470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreassen AK, Kverneb K, Jorgenson B, Simonsen S, Kjekshus J, Gullestad L (1998) Exercise capacity in heart transplant recipients: relation to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of peripheral microcirculation. Am Heart J 136:320–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aoki K, Shiojiri T, Shibasaki M, Takano S, Kondo N, Iwata A (1995) The effect of diurnal variation on the regional differences in sweating and skin blood flow during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 71:276–280Google Scholar
  5. Chen H-I, Li H-T, Chen CC (1994) Physical conditioning decreases norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in rabbits: possible roles of norepinephrine-evoked endothelium- derived relaxing factor. Circulation 90:970–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooke JP (1992) Endothelium-derived factors and peripheral vascular disease. Cardiovasc Clin 22:3–17Google Scholar
  7. Glasser SP, Selwyn AP, Ganz P (1996) Atherosclerosis: risk factors and the vascular endothelium. Ann Heart J 131:379–384Google Scholar
  8. Green DJ, O’Driscoll G, Blanksby BA, Taylor RR (1996) Control of skeletal muscle blood flow during dynamic exercise: contribution of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Sports Med 21:119–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jennings GL, Nelson L, Esler MD, Leonard P, Korner PI (1984) Effects of changes in physical activity on blood pressure and sympathetic tone. J Hypertens 2[Suppl 3]: 139–141Google Scholar
  10. Johnson JM (1998) Physical training and the control of skin blood flow. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:382–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Joyner MJ, Dietz NM (1997) Nitric oxide and vasodilation in human limbs. J Appl Physiol 83:1785–1796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Karhunen MK, Ramo MP, Kettunen R, Hirvonen L (1988) The cardiovascular effects of detraining after endurance training in rats. Acta Physiol Scand 133:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kellogg DL, Crandall CG, Liu Y, Charkoudian N, Johnson JM (1998) Nitric oxide and cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans. J Appl Physiol 85:824–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kingwell BA (2000a) Nitric oxide-mediated metabolic regulation during exercise: effects of training in health and cardiovascular disease. FASEB J 14:1685-1696CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kingwell BA (2000b) Nitric oxide as a metabolic regular during exercise: effects of training in health and disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 27:239–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Koller A, Kaley A (1991) Endothelial regulation of wall shear stress and blood flow in skeletal muscle microcirculation. Am J Physiol 260:H862–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kvernmo HD, Stefanovaska A, Kirkebon K, Osterud B, Kvernebo K (1998) Enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in human skin vasculature induced by physical conditioning. Eur J Appl Physiol 79:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Langille BL, O’Donnell F (1988) Reduction in arterial diameter produced by chronic decreases in blood flow are endothelium-dependent. Science 231:405–407Google Scholar
  19. Liao JK, Shin WS, Lee WY, Clark SL (1995) Oxidized low density lipoprotein decreases the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. J Biol Chem 95:319–324Google Scholar
  20. Lindblad LE, Ekenvall L, Ancker K, Rohman H, Oberg PA (1986) Laser Doppler flow-meter assessment of iontophoretically applied norepinephrine on human finger skin circulation. J Invest Dermatol 87:634-636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mankowitz K, Seip R, Semenkovich CF, Daugherty A, Schonfeld G (1992) Acute interruption of training affects both fasting and postprandial lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 95:181–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mano T, Masuyama T, Yamamoto K, et al (1996) Endothelial dysfunction in the early stage of atherosclerosis precedes appearance of intimal lesions assessable with intravascular ultrasound. Am Heart J 131:231–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Misko TP, Schilling RJ, Salvemini D, Moore WM, Currie MG (1993) A fluorometric assay for the measurement of nitrite in biological samples. Anal Biochem 214:11–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Morris SJ, Shore AC (1996) Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms. J Physiol (Lond) 496:531–542Google Scholar
  25. Nadaud SM, Philippe M, Arnal JF, Michel JB, Soubrier F (1996) Sustained increase in aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in vivo in a model of chronic high blood flow. Circ Res 79:857–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Nagamine S (1972) The determination of fatness by skin fold measurement. J Jpn Phys Assoc 68:919–924Google Scholar
  27. Palmer RMJ, Ferrige AG, Moncada S (1987) Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327:524–526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, DeSouza CA, Seals DR (2000) Aging, habitual exercise, and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation 102:1270–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Taylor HL, Buskirk E, Heuschel A (1995) Maximal oxygen intake as an objective measurement of cardiorespiratory performance. J Appl Physiol 8:73–80Google Scholar
  30. Wang JS, Jen CJ, Kung HC, Lin LJ, Hsiue TR, Chen H-I. (1994) Effects of strenuous exercise and moderate exercise on platelet function in males. Circulation 90:2877–2885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang JS. Jen CJ. Chen HI (1997) Effects of chronic exercise and deconditioning on platelet function in women. J Appl Physiol 183:2080-2085Google Scholar
  32. Wang JS, Lin C-C, Chen J-K, Wong M-K (2000) Roles of chronic exercise in decreasing oxidized LDL-potentiated platelet activation by enhancing platelet-derived NO release and bioactivity in rats. Life Sci 66:1937–1948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang JS, Lan C, Wong M-K (2001) Tai Chi Chuan training to enhance microcirculatory function in healthy elderly men. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82:1176–1180Google Scholar
  34. Wang JS, Yang CF, Liaw M-Y, Wong M-K (2002a) Suppressed cutaneous endothelial vascular control and hemodynamic changes in paretic extremities with edema in the extremities of patients with hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:1017–1023Google Scholar
  35. Wang JS, Lan C, Chen S-Y, Wong M-K (2002b) Tai Chi Chuan training is associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature of health older men. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:1024–1030CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Westerman R, Widdop R, Low A, Hannaford J, Kozak W, Zimmet P (1988) Non-invasive tests of neurovascular function: reduced axon reflex responses in diabetes mellitus of man and streptozotocin-induced diabetes of the rat. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 5:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Williams PT, Krauss RM, Vranizan KM, Alberts JJ, Terry RB, Wood PDS (1989) Effects of exercise- induced weight loss on low density lipoprotein subfractions in healthy men. Arteriosclerosis 9:623–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Yasue H, Matsuyama K, Matsuyama K, et al (1990) Responses of angiographically normal human coronary arteries to intracoronary injection of acetylcholine by age and segment: possible role of early coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 81:482–490PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences and Center for Gerontological ResearchChang Gung UniversityTao-YuanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations