European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 641–644

New functions and applications of Walter, the sweating fabric manikin

Original Article


In this paper, latest developments on Walter, a sweating fabric manikin, are reported. These include the improved simulation of “walking motion”, the design and construction of an automated water supply, and real-time measurement of evaporative water loss and regulation of “skin” temperature through the regulation of the pumps inside the manikin body. Testing of commercial garment ensembles showed that the measurement of thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance of clothing is very reproducible with the coefficient of variation being generally less than 5%. It was also shown that, in addition to the thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance, the percentage of moisture accumulation within clothing is a very useful parameter of clothing comfort. The improved manikin has been used to investigate the effects of walking motion on thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of clothing. The trend of the effects of walking speed up to 1.13 m s−1 for the nude manikin and when it was wearing garments of different sizes are reported.


Walter Sweating thermal manikin Walking motion Thermal comfort Clothing 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Textiles and ClothingThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonChina

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