The serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II response to altered posture and acute exercise, and the influence of ACE genotype
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The deletion (D) rather than insertion (I) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with greater ACE activity. We examined: (1) the influence of posture change (recumbent to seated) and acute exercise on serum ACE and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity; (2) the relationship between ACE and Ang II levels; and (3) the influence of ACE genotype on changes in ACE and Ang II levels with posture and exercise. Recreationally active young male Caucasians (10 each of II, ID and DD genotypes) rested for 35 min supine then 15 min upright, took 20 min bicycle ergometric exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake, then rested for 40 min. Samples were taken throughout for ACE activity and Ang II levels. Supine ACE levels were dependent upon ACE genotype [24.8 (5.7), 26.9 (4.5), 45.5 (6.4) nmol His-Leu ml−1 min−1; II, ID, DD, respectively; P<0.00005] and thereafter. ACE activity rose with assumption of a seated posture [from 32.4 (10.9) nmol His-Leu ml−1 min−1 to 35.0 (11.5) nmol His-Leu ml−1 min−1, P<0.00001], the absolute rise being independent of genotype [3.22 (1.92), 1.6 (1.6), 2.4 (2.3) nmol His-Leu ml−1 min−1; II, ID, DD; P=0.22], unlike percentage change [12.8 (6.8), 5.6 (5.5), 5.3 (5.0)%; II, ID, DD; P<0.01, and P=0.004 for II vs presence of the D allele]. A further genotype-independent rise occurred with exercise [+2.9 (3.7) units, P<0.0003]. An associated rise in Ang II levels [30.3 (15.9), or 2587.9 (489.76)%, P<0.00001] was independent of ACE genotype or activity. Upright posture increases ACE activity, and this may be influenced by ACE genotype. ACE activity and Ang II levels rise independently with exercise in a non-genotype-dependent fashion.