European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 89, Issue 5, pp 411–426 | Cite as

Finger cold-induced vasodilation: a review

Original Article

Abstract

Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5–10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes precedence over the survival of peripheral tissue. Subjects that are often exposed to local cold (e.g. fish filleters) develop an enhanced CIVD response. Also, differences between ethnic groups are obvious, with black people having the weakest CIVD response. Many other factors affect CIVD, such as diet, alcohol consumption, altitude, age and stress. CIVD is probably caused by a sudden decrease in the release of neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nerves to the muscular coat of the arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) due to local cold. AVAs are specific thermoregulatory organs that regulate blood flow in the cold and heat. Their relatively large diameter enables large amounts of blood to pass and convey heat to the surrounding tissue. Unfortunately, information on the quantity of AVAs is lacking, which makes it difficult to estimate the full impact on peripheral blood flow. This review illustrates the thermospecificity of the AVAs and the close link to CIVD. CIVD is influenced by many parameters, but controlled experiments yield information on how CIVD protects the extremities against cold injuries.

Keywords

Arterio-venous anastomoses Cold induced vasodilation Finger blood flow 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to Dr. M.B. Ducharme, Professor Dr. G.W.J.M. Tangelder, Professor Dr. R.S. Reneman, M. Simons, MD and Dr. W.A. Lotens for the review of the manuscript.

References

  1. Adams T, Smith RE (1962) Effect of chronic local cold exposure on finger temperature responses. J Appl Physiol 17:317–322Google Scholar
  2. Aschoff J (1944) Über der Kältedilation der Extremität des Menschen in Eiswasser [In German]. Pflugers Arch 248:183–196Google Scholar
  3. Bader ME, Mead J (1949) The effect of local thermal influences on blood flow through the fingers in various states of body heat balance. Office of the Quartermaster General. Environmental Protection section. Report 159. Quartermaster Climatic Research Lab. US Navy.Google Scholar
  4. Bartelink ML, De Wit A, Wollersheim H, Theeuwes A, Thien T (1993) Skin vascular reactivity in healthy subjects: influence of hormonal status. J Appl Physiol 74:727–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergersen TK, Hisdal J, Walloe L (1999) Perfusion of the human finger during cold-induced vasodilation. Am J Physiol 276:R731–R737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaisdell RK (1951) Effect of body thermal state on cold-induced cyclic vasodilation in the finger. Report to the quartermaster general number 177. Quartermaster Climatic Research Lab. US Navy.Google Scholar
  7. Bridgman SA (1991) Peripheral cold acclimatization in Antarctic scuba divers. Aviat Space Environ Med 62:733–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown GM, Page J (1952) The effect of chronic exposure to cold on temperature and blood flow of the hand. J Appl Physiol 5:221–227Google Scholar
  9. Burgess HJ, Sletten T, Savic N, Gilbert SS, Dawson D (2001) Effects of bright light and melatonin on sleep propensity, temperature, and cardiac activity at night. J Appl Physiol 91:1214–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Burton AC, Edholm OG (1955) Man in a cold environment. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlson LD (1966) Method of estimating local tolerance to extreme cold. In: Yoshimura H, Weiner JS (eds) Human adaptability and its methodology. Proceedings of a Symposium, Kyoto, Japan. Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences, pp 60–63Google Scholar
  12. Carter SA (1978) Voluntary increase in finger temperature in man in a cooling environment. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 56:993–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen F, Nilsson H, Holmér I (1994) Finger cooling by contact with cold aluminium surfaces – effect of pressure, mass and whole body thermal balance. Eur J Appl Physiol 69:55–60Google Scholar
  14. Clara M (1939) Die arterio-venösen Anastomosen [In German]. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark ER, Clark EL (1934) The new formation of arteriovenous anastomoses in the rabbit's ear. Am J Anat 54:229Google Scholar
  16. Cleophas TJM, Fennis JFM, Van'tLaar A (1982) Finger temperature after a finger-cooling test: influence of air temperature and smoking. J Appl Physiol 52(5):1167–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Coffman JD (1972) Total and nutritional blood flow in the finger. Clin Sci 42:243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooke JP, Craeger MA, Osmundson PJ, Shepherd JT (1990) Sex differences in control of cutaneous blood flow. Circulation 82:1607–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Daanen HAM (1997) Central and peripheral control of finger blood flow in the cold. Thesis. Free University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  20. Daanen HAM (2001) Cold injury risk of marines [in Dutch]. Report TM-A050. TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg Google Scholar
  21. Daanen HAM, Ducharme MB (1999) Finger cold-induced vasodilation during mild hypothermia, hyperthermia and at thermoneutrality. Aviat Space Environ Med 70:1206–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Daanen HAM, Ducharme MB (2000) Axon reflexes in cold exposed fingers. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:240–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Daanen HAM, Van Ruiten HJM (2000) Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes – a field study. High Altitude Med Biol 1:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daanen HAM, Van de Linde FJG, Romet TT, Ducharme MB (1997) The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger. Eur J Appl Physiol 76:538–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ducharme MB, Vanhelder WP, Radomski W (1991) Cyclic intramuscular temperature fluctuations in the human forearm during cold-water immersion. Eur J Appl Physiol 63:188–193Google Scholar
  26. Ducharme MB, Greif R, Sessler DI, Doufas A, Mokhtarani M (2001) Forearm tissue temperature and the CIVD response. Proc Aust Physiol Pharmacol Soc 32(2) [Suppl.] 1:27PGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards M, Burton AC (1960) Correlation of heat output and blood flow in the finger, especially in cold-induced vasodilation. J Appl Physiol 15:201–208Google Scholar
  28. Elkington EJ (1968) Finger blood flow in Antarctica. J Physiol (Lond) 199:1–10Google Scholar
  29. Elsner RW (1963) Comparison of Australian aborigines, Alacaluf Indians, and Andean Indians. Fed Proc 22:840–842Google Scholar
  30. Elsner RW, Nelms JD, Irving L (1960) Circulation of heat to the hands of Arctic Indians. J Appl Physiol 15:662–666Google Scholar
  31. Fernández N, Monge L, García-Villalón AL, García JL, Gómez B, Diéguez G (1994) Cooling effects on nitric oxide production by rabbit ear and femoral arteries druing cholinergic stimulation. Br J Pharmacol 113:550–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Folkow B, Fox RH, Krog J, Odelram H, Thorén O (1963) Studies on the reactions of the cutaneous vessels to cold exposure. Acta Physiol Scand 58:342–354Google Scholar
  33. Fox RH, Wyatt HT (1962) Cold-Induced vasodilatation in various areas of the body surface of man. J Physiol (Lond) 162:289–297Google Scholar
  34. Freedman RR, Sabharwal SC, Moten M, Migáli P (1992) Local temperature modulates α1- and α2-adrenergic vasoconstriction in men. Am J Physiol 263:H1197–H1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. García-Villalón AL, Monge L, Montoya JJ, García JL, Fernández N, Gómez B, Diéguez G (1992) Cooling and adrenergic response of rabbit ear and femoral artery: role of the endothelium. Br J Pharmacol 106:727–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gardner CA, Webb RC (1986) Cold-induced vasodilatation in isolated, perfused rat tail artery. Am J Physiol 251:H176–H181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gasser P, Müller P, Mauli D, Stäubli C (1992) Evaluation of reflex cold provocation by laser doppler flowmetry in clinically healthy subjects with a history of cold hands. Angiology 43 (5):389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gibbon JH, Landis EM (1932) Vasodilation in the lower extremities in response to immersing the forearms in warm water. J Clin Invest 11:1019–1036Google Scholar
  39. Glaser EM, Whittow GC (1957) Retention in a warm environment of adaptation to localized cooling. J Physiol (Lond) 136:98–111Google Scholar
  40. Graham TE, Lougheed MD (1985) Thermal responses to exercise in the cold: influence of sex differences and alcohol. Hum Biol 57 (4):687–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Granberg PO (1991) Alcohol and cold. Arct Med Res 50 [Suppl. 6]:43–47Google Scholar
  42. Grant RT, Bland E (1931) Observations on arterio-venous anastomoses in human skin and in the bird's foot with special reference to the reaction to cold. Heart 15:385–411Google Scholar
  43. Gray H (2000) Anatomy of the human body. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1918; Bartleby.com, 2000Google Scholar
  44. Greenfield ADM, Kernohan,GA, Marshall RJ, Shepherd JT, Whelan RF (1951) Heat loss from toes and fore-feet during immersion in cold water. J Appl Physiol 4:37–45Google Scholar
  45. Guyton AC, Hall JE (1996) Textbook of medical physiology. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  46. Hale AR, Burch GE (1960) The arteriovenous anastomoses and blood vessels of the human finger. Morphological and functional aspects. Medicine 39:191–240Google Scholar
  47. Halperin JL, Cohen RA, Coffman JD (1983) Digital vasodilation during mental stress in patients with Raynaud's disease. Cardiovasc Res 17:671–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hampton IFG (1969) Local acclimatization of the hands to prolonged cold exposure in the Antarctic. Brit Antarctic Surv Bull 19:9–56Google Scholar
  49. Havenith G, Van de Linde FJG, Heus R (1992) Pain, thermal sensation and cooling rates of hands while touching cold materials. Eur J Appl Physiol 65:43–51Google Scholar
  50. Hellström B, Andersen KL (1960) Heat output in the cold from hands of Arctic fishermen. J Appl Physiol 15:771–775Google Scholar
  51. Heus R, Daanen HAM (1993) The influence of cold induced vasodilation on pain and thermal sensations of hand immersed in cold water In: Milton AS (ed) Thermal physiology 1993. Abstracts of the Proceedings of the IUPS Thermal Physiology Commission Symposium August 1993, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirai A, Tanabe M, Shido O (1991) Enhancement of finger blood flow response of postprandial human subjects to the increase in body temperature during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 62:221–227Google Scholar
  53. Hirai K, Horvath SM, Weinstein V (1970) Differences in the vascular hunting reaction between Caucasians and Japanese. Angiology 21:502 – 510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hirata K, Nagasaka T, Noda Y (1988) Partitional measurement of capillary and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flow in the human finger by laser-Doppler flowmeter. Eur J Appl Physiol 57:616–621Google Scholar
  55. Hornyak ME, Naver HK, Rydenhag B, Wallin BG (1990) Sympathetic activity influences the vascular axon reflex in the skin. Acta Physiol Scand 139:77–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Iampietro PF, Goldman RF, Buskirk ER, Bass DE (1959) Response of Negro and white males to cold. J Appl Physiol 14:798–800Google Scholar
  57. Iida T (1949) Studies concerning vascular reaction to cold (Part 1). Physiological significance of vascular reaction to cold [In Japanese]. J Physiol Soc Jpn 11:73–78Google Scholar
  58. Itoh S, Kuroshima A, Hiroshige T, Doi K (1970) Finger temperature responses to local cooling in several groups of subjects in Hokkaido. Jpn J Physiol 20:370–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. IUPS Thermal Commission (2001) Glossary of terms for thermal physiology. Jpn J Physiol 51 (2):245–280Google Scholar
  60. Izumi H, Karita K (1991) Axon reflex vasodilation in human skin measured by a laser doppler technique. Jpn J Physiol 41:693–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jackson RL, Roberts DE, Cote R, McNeal P, Sharp MW, Fay JT, Kraus E, Rahman SA, Hamlet MP (1989) Psychological and physiological responses of blacks and caucasians to hand cooling. Report T20–89 US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  62. Jobe JB, Sampson JB, Roberts DE, Beetham WP (1982) Induced vasodilation as treatment for Raynaud's disease. Ann Intern Med 97 (5):706–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jobe JB, Goldman RF, Beetham WP (1985) Comparison of the hunting reaction in normals and individuals with Raynaud's disease. Aviat Space Environ Med 56:568–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson JM, Taylor WF, Shepherd AP, Park MK (1984) Laser-Doppler measurement of skin blood flow: comparison with plethysmography. J Appl Physiol 56 (3):798–803CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Keatinge WR (1957) The effect of general chilling on the vasodilator response to cold. J Physiol (Lond) 139:497–507Google Scholar
  66. Keatinge WR (1961) The return of blood flow to fingers in ice water after suppression by adrenaline or noradrenaline. J Physiol (Lond) 159:101–110Google Scholar
  67. Keatinge WR (1970) Direct effect of temperature on blood vessels: their role in cold vasodilation. In: Hardy JD, Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ (eds) Physiological and behavioural temperature regulation. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  68. Keatinge WR, Harman MC (1980) Local mechanisms controlling blood vessels. In: Monographs of the Physiological Society, 37, Chapter 8. Academic Press, London, pp 99–108Google Scholar
  69. Khan J, Spence VA, Belch JJF (2002) Cutaneous vascular responses and thermoregulation in relation to age. Clin Sci 82:521–528Google Scholar
  70. Kramer K, Schulze W (1948) Die Kältedilatation der Hautgefäβe. Pflugers Arch 250:141–170Google Scholar
  71. Kregel KC, Seals DR, Callister R (1992) Sympathetic nervous system activity during skin cooling in humans: relationship to stimulus intensity and pain sensation. J Physiol 454:359–371Google Scholar
  72. Kreh A, Anton F, Gilly H, Handwerker HO (1984) Vascular reactions correlated with pain due to cold. Exp Neurol 85:533–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Krog F, Folkow B, Fox RH, Lange Andersen K (1960) Hand circulation in the cold of Lapps and North Norwegian fishermen. J Appl Physiol 15:654–658Google Scholar
  74. LeBlanc J (1975) Man in the cold. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  75. LeBlanc J, Hildes JA, Héroux O (1960) Tolerance of Gaspé fishermen to cold water. J Appl Physiol 15:1031–1034Google Scholar
  76. Lee DT, Young AJ, Bogart JE, Pandolf KB (1996) Finger vasodilatory responses in 4°C water. FASEB J 10 (3):A212Google Scholar
  77. Lewis T (1930) Observations upon the reactions of the vessels of the human skin to cold. Heart 15:177–208Google Scholar
  78. Livingstone SD (1976a) Effect of vitamin C on cold-induced vasodilation. Lancet 7:319–320Google Scholar
  79. Livingstone SD (1976b) Changes in cold-induced vasodilation during Arctic exercises. J Appl Physiol 40:455–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Livingstone SD, Grayson J, Reed LD, Gordon D (1978) Effect of a local cold stress on peripheral temperatures of Inuit, Oriental, and Caucasian subjects. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 56:877–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Livingstone SD, Nolan RW, Keefe AA (1989) Changes in cold tolerance during a 100 day polar ski expedition. In: Mercer JB (ed) Thermal physiology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  82. Magerl W, Szolcsányi J, Westerman RA, Handwerker HO (1987) Laser Doppler measurements of skin vasodilation elicited by percutaneous electrical stimulation of nociceptors in humans. Neurosci Lett 82:349–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Marriott I, Marshall JM, Johns EJ (1990) Cutaneous vascular responses evoked in the hand by the cold pressor test and by mental arithmetic. Clin Sci 79:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Masson P (1937) Les glomus neuro-vasculaires [In French]. Hermann, ParisGoogle Scholar
  85. Mathew L, Purkayastha SS, Selvamurthy W, Malhotra MS (1977) Cold induced vasodilatation and peripheral blood flow under local cold stress in man at altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med 48:497–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Meehan JP (1955) Individual and racial variations in a vascular response to a cold stimulus. Milit Med 116:330–334 [note that Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 have been reversed in the original article]Google Scholar
  87. Meehan JP (1957) General body cooling and hand cooling. In: Protection and functioning of the hands in cold climates. National Academy of Sciences, National research council, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  88. Miller LK, Irving L (1962) Local reactions to air cooling in an Eskimo population. J Appl Physiol 17:449–455Google Scholar
  89. Mills WJ, Dromeshauser RA, Hempel FG, Pozos RS (1986) The effect of ethanol on cold induced vasodilation. In: Lomax, Schönbaum, Veale (eds) Homeostasis and thermal stress, 6th International Symposium on Pharmacological Thermoregulation. Karger, Basel, pp 43–45Google Scholar
  90. Moriya K, Nakagawa K (1990) Cold-induced vasodilatation of finger and maximal oxygen consumption of young female athletes born in Hokkaido. Int J Biometeorol 34:15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nagasaka T, Hirata K, Nunomura T (1988) Partitional measurements of circulation can be made between capillaries and arteriovenous anastomoses in the human finger. Jpn J Physiol 38:67–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nelms JD, Soper DJG (1962) Cold vasodilation and cold acclimation in the hands of British fish filleters. J Appl Physiol 17:444–448Google Scholar
  93. O'Brien C, Castellani JW, Young AJ (1999) Exertional fatigue alters cold-induced vasodilation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31 (5) [Suppl.] abstract 894Google Scholar
  94. Okuda A (1942) Studies on frostbite. 1. Effects of cooling on volume, skin temperature and microscopic skin changes of fingers and toes [In Japanese]. J Physiol Soc Jpn 7:505–516Google Scholar
  95. Page J, Brown GM (1953) Effect of heating and cooling the legs on hand and forearm blood flow in the Eskimo. J Appl Physiol 5:753–758Google Scholar
  96. Pickering GW (1932) The vasomotor regulation of heat loss from the skin in relation to external temperature. Heart 16:115–135Google Scholar
  97. Pollock FE, Koman LA, Smith BP, Holden M, Russell GB, Poehling GG (1993) Measurement of hand microvascular blood flow with isolated cold stress testing and laser Doppler fluxmetry. J Hand Surg 18A:143–150Google Scholar
  98. Purkayastha SS, Selvamurthy W, Ilavazhagan G (1992) Peripheral vascular response to local cold stress of tropical men during sojourn in the Arctic cold region. Jpn J Physiol 42:877–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Purkayastha SS, Ilavazhagan G, Ray US, Selvamurthy W (1993) Responses of Arctic and tropical men to a standard cold test and peripheral vascular responses to local cold stress in the Arctic. Aviat Space Environ Med 64:1113–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Purkayastha SS, Sharma RP, Ilavazhagan G, Sridharan K, Ranganathan S, Selvamurthy W (1999) Effect of vitamin C and E in modulating peripheral vascular response to local cold stimulus in man at high altitude. Jpn J Physiol 49:159–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rapaport SI, Fetcher ES, Shaub HG, Hall JF (1949) Control of blood flow to the extremities at low ambient temperatures. J Appl Physiol 2:61–71Google Scholar
  102. Reading JE, Roberts DE, Prusaczyk WK (1997) Gender differences in finger temperatures during cold air exposure. NHRC publication 97–37. Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, Calif.Google Scholar
  103. Roddie IC (1983) Circulation to skin and adipose tissue In: Shepherd, JT, Abboud, FM (eds) Handbook of physiology, section 2. The cardiovascular system. Volume III: Peripheral circulation and organ blood flow. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, Md., pp 285–317Google Scholar
  104. Savourey G, Barnavol B, Caravel J-P, Feuerstein C, Bittel JHM (1996) Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation. Eur J Appl Physiol 73:237–244Google Scholar
  105. Sawada S (1996) Cold-induced vasodilation response of finger skin blood vessels in older men observed by using a modified local cold tolerance test. Indust Health 34:561–556Google Scholar
  106. Sawada S, Araki S, Yokoyama K (2000) Changes in cold-induced vasodilatation, pain and cold sensation in fingers caused by repeated finger cooling in a cool environment. Indust Health 38 (1):79–86Google Scholar
  107. Sendowski I, Savourey G, Besnard Y, Bittel J (1997) Cold induced vasodilation and cardiovascular responses in humans during cold water immersion of various upper limb areas. Eur J Appl Physiol 75:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sendowski I, Savourey G, Launay J-C, Besnard Y, Cottet-Emard J-M, Pequignot J-M, Bittel J (2000) Sympathetic stimulation induced by hand cooling alters cold-induced vasodilatation in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:303–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sherman JL (1963) Normal arteriovenous anastomoses. Medicine 42:247–267Google Scholar
  110. Spealman CR (1945) Effect of ambient air temperature and of hand temperature on blood flow in hands. Am J Physiol 145:218–222Google Scholar
  111. Spurr GB, Hutt BK, Horvath SM (1955) The effects of age on finger temperature responses to local cooling. Am Heart J 50:551–555Google Scholar
  112. Takano N, Kotani M (1989) Influence of food intake on cold-induced vasodilatation of finger. Jpn J Physiol 39:755–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Takeoka M, Yanagidaira Y, Sakai A, Asano K, Fujiwara T, Yanagisawa K, Kashumura O, Ueda G, Wu T-Y, Zhang Y (1993) Effects of high altitudes on finger cooling test in Japanese and Tibetans at Qinghai Plateau. Int J Biometeorol 37:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tan K, Tregenza T (2002) Looking for the BLIP. Website www.gecdsb.on.ca/sub/projects /psl/senior/10vaso.htmGoogle Scholar
  115. Tanaka M (1971a) Experimental studies on human reaction to cold – vascular hunting reaction of workers to cold. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 18:169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Tanaka M (1971b) Experimental studies on human reaction to cold – Differences in the vascular hunting reaction to cold according to sex, season and environmental temperature. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 18:269–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tenland T (1982) On laser Doppler flowmetry – methods and microvascular applications. Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Dissertations No. 83. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, LinköpingGoogle Scholar
  118. Van Someren EJW, Raymann RJEM, Scherder EJA, Daanen HAM, Swaab DF (2002) Circadian and age-related modulation of thermoreception and temperature regulation: mechanisms and functional implications. Ageing Res Rev 1:721–778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Vanggaard L (1975) Physiological reactions to wet cold. Aviat Space Environ Med 46 (1):33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Werner J (1977) Influences of local and global temperature stimuli on the Lewis-reaction. Pflugers Arch 367:291–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Werner J (1983) Influences of rate of temperature change on effector mechanisms in human thermoregulation. J Therm Biol 8:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Westerman RA, Low A, Pratt A, Hutchinson JS, Szolcsányi J, Magerl W, Handwerker HO, Kozak WM (1987) Electrically evoked skin vasodilation: a quantitative test of nociceptor function in man. Clin Exp Neurol 23:81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilson O, Goldman RF (1970) Role of air temperature and wind in the time necessary for a finger to freeze. J Appl Physiol 29:658–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wollersheim HCH (1988) Raynaud's phenomenon – clinical, patho-physiological and therapeutical studies. Thesis. University of Nijmegen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  125. Wyndham CH, Plotkin R, Munro A (1964) Physiological reactions to cold of men in the Antarctic. J Appl Physiol 19:593–597Google Scholar
  126. Yoneyama S, Hashimoto S, Honma K (1999) Seasonal changes of human circadian rhythms in Antarctica. Am J Physiol 277:R1091–R1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Yoshimura H (1960) Acclimatization to heat and cold. In: Essential problems in climatic physiology. Nankodo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  128. Yoshimura H (1966) A comment for the method of estimating peripheral tolerance to extreme cold. In: Yoshimura H, Weiner JS (eds) Human adaptability and its methodology. Proceedings of a Symposium, Kyoto, Japan. Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences, pp 64–66Google Scholar
  129. Yoshimura H, Iida T (1950) Studies on the reactivity of skin vessels to extreme cold. Part I. A point test on the resistance against frostbite. Jpn J Physiol 1:147–159Google Scholar
  130. Yoshimura H, Iida T (1952) Studies on the reactivity of skin vessels to extreme cold. Part II. Factors governing the individual difference of the reactivity, or the resistance against frostbite. Jpn J Physiol 2:177–185Google Scholar
  131. Yoshimura H, Iida T, Koishi H (1952) Studies on the reactivity of skin vessels to extreme cold. Part III. Effects of diets on the reactivity of skin vessels to cold. Jpn J Physiol 2:310–315Google Scholar
  132. Yoshimura H, Oshiba S, Masuko K (1958) Vascular reaction to cold – additional research [In Japanese]. J Kyoto Pref Med Univ 64:183–186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TNO Human FactorsSoesterbergThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations