Advertisement

Critical evaluation and review of cadmium concentrations in blood for use in occupational health according to the TRACY protocol

  • R. F. M. Herber
  • Jytte Molin Christensen
  • Enrico Sabbioni
REVIEW

Abstract

 Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) may be used to assess recent exposure to cadmium in the working or general environment. In a paper published elsewhere pooled reference values using meta-analysis of B-Cd values in general-population studies were calculated. In the present study tentative reference intervals were described which can be used for comparison with data from occupationally exposed groups or individuals. The selection of studies was done according to criteria as published by the international project TRACY. For this purpose, 800 publications covering the period 1983–1992 were reviewed on their suitability for establishing tentative reference intervals. From these 800 publications, four finally met the selection criteria. Most important criteria for selection were the check for contamination during sampling of the blood, the storage and pretreatment procedures, and the existence of internal and external quality control programs. Also, stratifications into sex, smoking habits and occupation were important selection criteria. It turned out that for non-smoking white-collar workers in the age range of 19–65 years, B-Cd values were below 0.8 μg/l for most areas. All other groups within this age group, e.g., white collar workers in Japan, blue-collar workers, and smokers tend to have higher B-Cd values in these sequences. Blue-collar workers not clearly exposed to Cd have higher values than white-collar workers, indicating still some minor exposure. It is not clear if this small exposure has an occupational or lifestyle (e.g., diet) origin. Geographic regions also show an influence on B-Cd levels, e.g., values in Japan are higher than elsewhere. This influence may be due to differences in diet. The conclusion will be that reference values for B-Cd in fact are area-dependent.

Key words Blood Cadmium Reference intervals Occupational health 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. F. M. Herber
    • 1
  • Jytte Molin Christensen
    • 2
  • Enrico Sabbioni
    • 3
  1. 1.Coronel Laboratory for Occupational and Environmental Health, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 15, NL-1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Fax: +31-20-6977161, e-mail: R.F.Herber@amc.uva.nlNL
  2. 2.National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK-2100, Københaven Ø, DenmarkDK
  3. 3.Environment Institute, Joint Research Centre Ispra, European Commission, I-21020 Ispra, Varese, ItalyIT

Personalised recommendations