New insights on occupational exposure and bladder cancer risk: a pooled analysis of two Italian case–control studies
- 98 Downloads
The main risk factor for bladder cancer (BC) is cigarette smoking, but also occupational exposure to carcinogens is relevant, causing about 4–10% of BC. We aimed at investigating the association between BC risk, occupations held in the past and exposure to occupational carcinogens, also assessing whether these associations were influenced by tumour grade.
We pooled data from two Italian case–control studies on male BC, analyzing 893 cases and 978 controls. Occupations were classified using the International Standard Classification of Occupations and exposure to carcinogens was assigned using a validated Job Exposure Matrix. Logistic regression approach was used as well as a semi-Bayesian model, based on a priori information on exposure.
A significantly increased BC risk was found for chemical engineering technicians, postmen, and lathe operators, but only, for the latter, the association remained significant after Bayesian control for type I error. Among carcinogens, cadmium and trichloroethylene were associated with BC. When analyzing data by grade, exposure to these carcinogens was associated with low-grade BC only.
Our results suggest that monitoring workplaces to prevent exposure to carcinogenic agents is still an important task, which should be still given adequate importance in public health.
KeywordsBladder cancer Occupational exposure Carcinogens Case–control study Bayesian methods
We would like to thank Dr. Timo Kauppinen for giving us the opportunity to use the NOCCA JEM. The study was partly funded through an agreement between the Universities of Verona and Brescia, Italy.
- AIOM AIRTUM (2016) I numeri del cancro in Italia 2016. Intermedia Editore, BresciaGoogle Scholar
- Babjuk M, Burger M, Zigeuner R, Shariat SF, van Rhijn BW, Compérat E, Sylvester RJ, Kaasinen E, Böhle A, Palou Redorta J, Rouprêt M (2013) European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2013. Eur Urol 64(4):639–653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Ser B (Methodological) 57(1):289–300Google Scholar
- Case R, Hosker ME (1954) Tumour of the urinary bladder as an occupational disease in the rubber industry in England and Wales. Br J Ind Med 8(2):39–50Google Scholar
- Case RA, Hosker ME, McDonald DB, Pearson JT (1954) Tumours of the urinary bladder in workmen engaged in the manufacture and use of certain dyestuff intermediates in the British chemical industry. I. The role of aniline, benzidine, alpha-naphtylamine, and beta-naphtylamine. Br J Int Med 11:75–104Google Scholar
- Colt JS, Friesen MC, Stewart PA, Donguk P, Johnson A, Schwenn M, Karagas MR, Armenti K, Waddell R, Verrill C, Ward MH, Freeman LE, Moore LE, Koutros S, Baris D, Silverman DT (2014) A case–control study of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids and bladder cancer risk among men. Occup Environ Med 71(10):667–674. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-102056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Corbin M, Richiardi L, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Merletti F, Peters S, Simonato L, Steenland K, Pearce N, Maule M (2012) Hierarchical regression for multiple comparisons in a case–control study of occupational risks for lung cancer. PLoS One 7(6):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Falcone U, Gilardi L, Santoro S, Orengia M, Marighella M, Coffano ME (2013) MATline, a job-exposure matrix for the prevision of exposure to carcinogens: new functions and potential applications. Epidemiol Prev 37(1):60–66Google Scholar
- Feki-Tounsi M, Olmedo P, Gil F, Khlifi R, Mhiri MN, Rebai A, HamzaChaffai A (2013) Cadmium in blood of Tunisian men and risk of bladder cancer: interactions with arsenic exposure and smoking. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20(10):7204–7213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1716-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Figueroa JD, Koutros S, Colt JS, Kogevinas M, Garcia-Closas M, Real FX, Friesen MC, Baris D, Stewart P, Schwenn M, Johnson A, Karagas MR, Armenti KR, Moore LE, Schned A, Lenz P, Prokunina-Olsson L, Banday AR, Paquin A, Ylaya K, Chung JY, Hewitt SM, Nickerson ML, Tardón A, Serra C, Carrato A, García-Closas R, Lloreta J, Malats N, Fraumeni JF Jr, Chanock SJ, Chatterjee N, Rothman N, Silverman DT (2015) Modification of occupational exposures on bladder cancer risk by common genetic polymorphisms. J Natl Cancer Inst 107(11):djv223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hrudey SE, Backer L, Humpage AR, Krasner SW, Michaud DS, Moore LE, Singer PC, Stanford BD (2015) Evaluating evidence for association of human bladder cancer with drinking water chlorination disinfection by-products. J Toxicol Environ Health 18(5):213–241. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2015.1067661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IARC (1987) Polynuclear aromatic compounds, part 2: carbon blacks, mineral oil (lubricant base oils and derived products) and some nitroarenes. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1995) Volume 63: dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2000) Volume 77: some industrial chemicals. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2010) Volume 98: painting, firefighting, and shiftwork. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2012) Volume 100F: chemical agents and related occupations. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- International Labour Office (1968) ISCO. International Standard Classification of Occupations. International Labor Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ITACAN (2018) Tumori in Italia, Versione 2.0. Associazione Italiana dei Registri TUMori http://www.registri-tumori.it. Accessed Jan 2018
- Kogevinas M, Kauppinen T, Boffetta P, Saracci R (1998) Estimation of the burden of occupational cancer in Europe. Final report to the European commission of a project funded by the programme in Europe Against Cancer. Tech rep, Institut Municipal d’Investigacio MedicaGoogle Scholar
- Ricceri F, Guarrera S, Sacerdote C, Polidoro S, Allione A, Fontana D, Destefanis P, Tizzani A, Casetta G, Cucchiarale G, Vineis P, Matullo G (2010) ERCC1 haplotypes modify bladder cancer risk: a case–control study. DNA Repair 9(2):191–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2009.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rota M, Bosetti C, Boccia S, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C (2014) Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: an updated systematic review and a meta-analysis to 2014. Arch Toxicol 88(8):1479–1490. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1296-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sacerdote C, Guarrera S, Ricceri F, Pardini B, Polidoro S, Allione A, Critelli R, Russo A, Andrew AS, Ye Y, Wu X, Kiemeney LA, Bosio A, Casetta G, Cucchiarale G, Destefanis P, Gontero P, Rolle L, Zitella A, Fontana D, Vineis P, Matullo G (2013) Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene modify survival of bladder cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Int J Cancer Oct 133(8):2004–2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stewart BW, Wild CP (2014) World cancer report 2014. IARC, LyonGoogle Scholar
- Talaska G, Dooley KL, Kadlubar FF (1990) Detection and characterization of carcinogen-DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from 4-aminobiphenyl-treated dogs by 32P-postlabelling and subsequent thin-layer and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Carcinogenesis 11(4):639–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar