Cardiovascular disease mortality among retired workers chronically exposed to intense occupational noise

  • Serge Andre Girard
  • Tony Leroux
  • René Verreault
  • Marilène Courteau
  • Michel Picard
  • Fernand Turcotte
  • Julie Baril
  • Olivier Richer
Original Article



The aim of this study, conducted among retired workers (≥65 years), is to estimate the association between long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death and (1) duration of occupational noise exposure in career and (2) noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the latter being used as an indicator of adverse effects for long-term exposure to occupational noise.


Data from screening activities of occupational NIHL were paired to data from death records and were used for this study. A nested case–control analysis was performed. Each case was matched with three controls for length of follow-up and economic sector. A total of 161 CVD deaths occured during an average follow-up of 6.8 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk (OR) of CVD death by tertiles of duration of noise exposure and of NIHL.


Conditional logistic regression models indicated that prolonged duration of noise exposure (≥36.5 years) (3rd tertile) was associated with an increased risk of CVD death (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.10–2.62), as compared with shorter duration (<27 years) (first tertile). Moderate NIHL (2nd tertile) (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.04–2.6) and severe NIHL (3rd tertile) (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.06–2.60) were also associated with an increase in risk of CVD death.


Results are consistent with recent findings on the chronic effects of occupational noise exposure persisting after retirement although it is less than during active working life.


Ischemic heart disease Mortality Case–control study Occupational noise exposure NIHL Retired workers 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serge Andre Girard
    • 1
  • Tony Leroux
    • 2
    • 3
  • René Verreault
    • 4
  • Marilène Courteau
    • 1
  • Michel Picard
    • 2
  • Fernand Turcotte
    • 4
  • Julie Baril
    • 1
    • 2
  • Olivier Richer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut national de santé publique du QuébecQuébecCanada
  2. 2.École d’orthophonie et d’audiologieUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Laboratoire d’études sur l’auditionInstitut Raymond-Dewar, Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire en réadaptationMontréalCanada
  4. 4.Département de médecine sociale et préventiveUniversité LavalQuébecCanada

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