Exposure to respirable dust and manganese and prevalence of airways symptoms, among Swedish mild steel welders in the manufacturing industry

  • Maria HedmerEmail author
  • Jan-Eric Karlsson
  • Ulla Andersson
  • Helene Jacobsson
  • Jörn Nielsen
  • Håkan Tinnerberg
Original Article



Welding fume consists of metal fumes, e.g., manganese (Mn) and gases, e.g., ozone. Particles in the respirable dust (RD) size range dominate. Exposure to welding fume could cause short- and long-term respiratory effects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms among mild steel welders was studied, and the occupational exposure to welding fumes was quantified by repeated measurements of RD, respirable Mn, and ozone. Also the variance components were studied.


A questionnaire concerning airway symptoms and occupational history was answered by 79 % of a cohort of 484 welders. A group of welders (N = 108) were selected and surveyed by personal exposure measurements of RD and ozone three times during 1 year.


The welders had a high frequency of work-related symptoms, e.g., stuffy nose (33 %), ocular symptoms (28 %), and dry cough (24 %). The geometric mean exposure to RD and respirable Mn was 1.3 mg/m3 (min–max 0.1–38.3 mg/m3) and 0.08 mg/m3 (min–max <0.01–2.13 mg/m3), respectively. More than 50 % of the Mn concentrations exceeded the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL). Mainly, low concentrations of ozone were measured, but 2 % of the samples exceeded the OEL. Of the total variance for RD, 30 and 33 % can be attributed to within-worker variability and between-company variability, respectively.


Welders had a high prevalence of work-related symptom from the airways and eyes. The welders’ exposure to Mn was unacceptably high. To reduce the exposure further, control measures in the welding workshops are needed. Correct use of general mechanical ventilation and local exhaust ventilation can, for example, efficiently reduce the exposure.


Welding Respirable dust Manganese Symptoms Occupational exposure Mild steel 



We would like to thank Ulf Bergendorf, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, for help with the personal exposure measurements. The study was funded by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS).

Conflict of interest

All authors state no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Hedmer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan-Eric Karlsson
    • 1
  • Ulla Andersson
    • 1
  • Helene Jacobsson
    • 2
  • Jörn Nielsen
    • 1
  • Håkan Tinnerberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory MedicineLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Competence Centre for Clinical ResearchSkåne University HospitalLundSweden

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