Exposure to poultry dust and health effects in poultry workers: impact of mould and mite allergens
- 572 Downloads
The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to moulds and house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in poultry farms, and related health effects in poultry workers (PW).
The study involved 41 PW and 45 control office workers. Working environment was evaluated for D. pteronyssinus allergen (Der p 1), moulds and endotoxin. In workers, eye, skin and respiratory symptoms, ventilatory lung function, atopy markers (skin prick test to inhalatory allergens, total IgE) and specific IgG to moulds were assessed.
Der p 1 levels ranged <0.1–3.3 μg/g, exposure to fungi was 4.9 × 103–6.8 × 104 cfu/m3, with prevailing Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor species, and endotoxin levels ranged 230–284 EU/m3. In comparison to control subjects, significantly higher prevalence of work-related nose, asthma, eye and skin symptoms, and slight decline in ventilatory lung function was found in PW. PW had significantly higher prevalence of IgG antibodies to moulds comparing to controls (63 vs. 36%, respectively, P = 0.01), especially to Alternaria and Aspergillus species. The prevalence of atopy markers in PW was lower than in population-based studies.
Hazardous levels of Der p 1, endotoxin and moulds were determined in poultry houses. High prevalence of work-related symptoms and IgG antibodies to moulds was found in PW. Healthy worker effect is proposed as an explanation of low atopy markers prevalence among PW.
KeywordsPoultry workers Hypersensitivity Moulds Dust mites Der p 1 Endotoxin Healthy worker effect
The study was done within the scientific projects No. 022-0222411-2410 and No. 053-0531854-1867, financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia. Projects were approved by authorized Ethical Committees.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aberer W, Kranke B (2002) Measurement of IgE antibodies using liquid allergens—an inter-method and inter-laboratory quality assessment. Wien Klin Wochenschr 114:929–937Google Scholar
- Anonimus (1998) MERCK MAS–100 system. Microbiological air sampler, operator’s manual. MERCK KgaA, Darmstadt, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Anonymous (1987) Guideline on validation of the Limulus amebocyte lysate test as an end-product endotoxin test for human and animal parenteral drugs, biological products and medical devices. US Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, US Public Health Service, USAGoogle Scholar
- Clark S, Rylander R, Larsson L (1983) Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 44:537–541Google Scholar
- Halonen M, Stern DA, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Martinez FD (1997) Alternaria as a major allergen for asthma in children raised in desert environment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:1356–1361Google Scholar
- Hollander A, Heederik D, Doekes G (1997) Respiratory allergy to rats: exposure–response relationships in laboratory animal workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:562–567Google Scholar
- Horner WE, Helbling A, Salvaggio JE, Lehrer SB (1995) Fungal allergens. Clin Microbiol Rev 8:161–179Google Scholar
- Lugauskas A, Krikštaponis A, Šveistyte L (2004) Airborne fungi in industrial environments-potential agents of respiratory diseases. Ann Agric Environ Med 11:19–25Google Scholar
- Macan J, Kanceljak-Macan B, Mustač Marko, Milković-Kraus S (2005) Analysis of dust samples from urban and rural occupational environments in Croatia. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 56:327–332Google Scholar
- Munivrana H, Vorko-Jović A, Munivrana S, Kursar M, Medlobi-Gluhak M, Vlahek P (2007) The prevalence of allergic diseases among Croatian school children according to the ISAAC Phase One questionnaire. Med Sci Monit 13(11):CR505–CR509Google Scholar
- Novak D (1994) Prevalence and risk factors for airway diseases in farmers: a new EC multicentre project. Ann Agric Environ Med 1:81–82Google Scholar
- Omland O (2002) Exposure and respiratory health in farming in temperate zones–a review of the literature. Ann Agric Environ Med 9:119–136Google Scholar
- Prester LJ, Brčić Karačonji I, Macan J (2007) Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 58:413–419Google Scholar
- Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC (1993) Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows. Report working party standardization of lung function tests, European community for steel and coal. Official statement of the european respiratory society. Eur Respir J Suppl 16:5–40Google Scholar
- Radon K, Danuser B, Iversen M, Monso E, Weber C, Hartung J et al (2002) Air contaminants in different European farming environments. Ann Agric Environ Med 9:41–48Google Scholar
- Rylander R, Peterson Y, Donham KJ (1990) Questionnaire evaluating organic dust exposure. Am J Ind Med 17:121–126Google Scholar
- Segvić Klarić M, Pepeljnjak S (2006) A year-round aeromycological study in Zagreb area, Croatia. Ann Agric Environ Med 13:55–64Google Scholar
- Skorska C, Mackiewicz B, Golec M, Cholewa G, Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska A, Dutkiewicz J (2007) Health effects of exposure to organic dust in workers of a modern hatchery. Ann Agric Environ Med 14:341–345Google Scholar
- Varnai MV, Macan J, Plavec D, Jureša D (2004) Endotoxin measurement in house dust using the end-point limulus amebocyte lysate method. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 55:175–181Google Scholar
- Vučemilo M, Matković K, Vinković B, Macan J, Varnai VM, Prester LJ et al (2008) Effect of microclimate on the airborne dust and endotoxin concentration in a broiler house. Czech J Anim Sci 53:83–89Google Scholar