Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity: a review of the literature

  • Matteo Crosera
  • Massimo Bovenzi
  • Giovanni Maina
  • Gianpiero Adami
  • Caterina Zanette
  • Chiara Florio
  • Francesca Filon Larese
Review Article

Abstract

Introduction

Nanotechnologies are among the fastest growing areas of scientific research and have important applications in a wide variety of fields. The data suggest that in the future workers and consumers exposed to nanoparticles will significantly increase.

Dermal absorption and toxicity of nanoparticles

At now there are gaps in understanding about the human and environmental risk that manufactured nanoparticles pose for occupational exposed people and for consumers. There is a need for assessing the health and environmental impacts, the nanoparticles life cycle, the human exposure routes, the behavior of nanoparticles in the body, and the risk for workers. Possible routes of entry into the body include inhalation, absorption through the skin or digestive tract, injection, and absorption or implantation for drugs delivery systems. In particular, dermal absorption and skin penetration of nanoparticles needs a better evaluation because few and contradictory data are present in the literature, mainly on titanium dioxide.

Conclusions

There are limited data on carbon-based nanoparticles and very few data on other metal nanoparticles increasingly used in industry. The article reviews the literature on the percutaneous absorption of nanoparticles and their effect on skin.

Keywords

Skin absorption Nanoparticles Review 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matteo Crosera
    • 1
  • Massimo Bovenzi
    • 2
  • Giovanni Maina
    • 3
  • Gianpiero Adami
    • 1
  • Caterina Zanette
    • 4
  • Chiara Florio
    • 4
  • Francesca Filon Larese
    • 2
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze ChimicheUniversità di TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.UCO Medicina del Lavoro, Dipartimento di Scienze di Medicina PubblicaUniversità di TriesteTriesteItaly
  3. 3.Laboratorio di Tossicologia Industriale, CTOUniversità di TorinoTorinoItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Scienze della VitaUniversità di TriesteTriesteItaly

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