Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers
- 131 Downloads
To compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group.
Participants’ (n = 42) urine samples, collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models.
(1) Post-shift 1OHP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. (2) Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1OHP levels.
Altogether, this study indicates the presence of a low level PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH 1-Hydroxypyrene Offshore Biological monitoring Crude oil exposure
We wish to thank Ms. Brenda L. Schumann for assistance in the laboratory and Dr. Howard Shertzer for use of the spectrophotometer. This research study was (partially) supported by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Health Pilot Research Project Training Program of the University of Cincinnati Education and Research Center Grant #T42/OH008432-03. The collection of the samples was financed by the Research Council of Norway under the PETROMAKS programme.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- ACGIH (2005) Biological exposure index (BEI): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), p 17Google Scholar
- Buchet JP, Gennart JP, Mercado-Calderon F et al (1992) Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure. Brit J Ind Med 49:761–768Google Scholar
- Durell G, Utvik TR, Johnsen S et al (2006) Oil well produced water discharges to the North Sea. Part I: Comparison of deployed Mussels (Mytilus Edulis), semi-permeable membrane devices, and the DREAM Model Predictions to estimate the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mar Env Res 62:194–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1983) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of chemicals to humans. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds Part 2. Chemical, Environmental and Experimental Data. Lyon 32Google Scholar
- Lafontaine M, Gendre C, Morele Y et al (2002) Excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in relation to the penetration routes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PAC 22:579–588Google Scholar
- Lauwerys RR, Hoet P (1993) Industrial Chemical Exposure: Guidelines for Biological Monitoring. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. (2000–2003) SAS Software, SAS System for Windows. Copyright© 2000–2003. SAS Institute Inc., Cary. Version 9.1Google Scholar
- Wilhelm M, Hardt J, Schulz C et al (2008) New reference value and the background exposure for the PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1- and 2-naphthol in urine of the general population in Germany: basis for validation of human biomonitoring data in environmental medicine. Int J Hyg Env Health 211:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar