A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: effort–reward imbalance

  • Johannes SiegristEmail author
  • Natalia Wege
  • Frank Pühlhofer
  • Morten Wahrendorf
Original Article



We evaluate psychometric properties of a short version of the original effort–reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. This measure is of interest in the context of assessing stressful work conditions in the era of economic globalization.


In a representative sample of 10,698 employed men and women participating in the longitudinal Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in Germany, a short version of the ERI questionnaire was included in the 2006 panel wave. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression analysis were applied.


In addition to satisfactory internal consistency of scales, a model representing the theoretical structure of the scales provided the best data fit in a competitive test (RMSEA = 0.059, CAIC = 4124.19). Scoring high on the ERI scales was associated with elevated risks of poor self-rated health.


This short version of the ERI questionnaire reveals satisfactory psychometric properties, and can be recommended for further use in research and practice.


Effort Reward imbalance Psychometric properties Short version Work stress Economic globalization 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Siegrist
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natalia Wege
    • 1
  • Frank Pühlhofer
    • 1
  • Morten Wahrendorf
    • 1
  1. 1.University of DuesseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

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