Paternal and maternal exposure to welding fumes and metal dusts or fumes and adverse pregnancy outcomes
- First Online:
- 243 Downloads
We assessed whether paternal exposure prior to conception and maternal exposure during pregnancy to welding fumes (WF) and metal dusts or fumes (MD/F) independently and jointly increases the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small-for-gestational age.
The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2,568 newborns (response rate 94%) and included 1,670 women who worked during pregnancy of which 68 were exposed either to WF and/or MD/F.
The risk of SGA was related to maternal exposure to WF only (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 0.53–5.99), MD/F only (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95% CI 0.38–8.35) and both exposures (2.92; 1.26–6.78). The corresponding effect estimates for preterm delivery were 2.66 (0.32–22.08), 5.64 (1.14–27.81) and for birth weight below 3,000 g 3.79 (1.09–13.19), 1.85 (0.56–6.14) and 1.70 (0.70–4.15), respectively. There was some suggestive, inconsistent evidence that the risk of preterm delivery and SGA is related to paternal exposure to WF.
The present results provide evidence that maternal exposure to WF or MD/F combination during pregnancy may reduce fetal growth and suggestive evidence that paternal exposure to WF may increase the risk of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational age. The small number of exposed women and the lack of data for exposure concentrations suggest the need for further study to verify our findings.
KeywordsWelding fumes Metal dust or fumes Maternal exposure Paternal exposure Adverse pregnancy outcome
- Gissler M, Shelley J (2002) Quality of data on subsequent events in a routine medical birth register. Med Inform (Lond) 27:33–38Google Scholar
- Gissler M, Haukka J (2004) Finnish health and social welfare registers in epidemiological research. Nor Epidemiol 14:113–120Google Scholar
- Heinonen S, Saarikoski S (2002) Reproductive risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and obstetric outcome in female doctors. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 109:261–264Google Scholar
- Hemminki K, Niemi M-L, Koskinen K et al (1980) Spontaneous abortion among women employed in the metal industry in Finland 47:53–60Google Scholar
- Jaakkola N (2002) Passive smoking during pregnancy and early childhood: occurrence, determinants, health effect and prevention. Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Ph.D thesisGoogle Scholar
- Knudsen I (1980) Mammalian spot test and its use for testing of potential carcinogenicity of welding fume particles and hexavalent chromium. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 47:66–70Google Scholar
- Knudsen LE, Boisen T, Christesen JM et al (1992) Biomonitoring of genetoxic exposure among stainless steel welders. Mutat Res 272:129–143Google Scholar