Job stress and depressive symptoms among Korean employees: the effects of culture on work
- 1.1k Downloads
This study was conducted to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and job stress, as measured by the KOSS, among Korean employees in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and examined which components of stress are involved in the risk for depression among males and females.
Data were collected from a work-stress survey of full-time employees of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Incheon, South Korea. A total of 3,013 participants were included in the analysis. Job stress was measured using 24 items (7 sub-scales) of the short form of Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS-SF), and depressive symptoms were evaluated using Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D).
After adjustment for confounding variables, most of subscales of job stress contributed to an increased risk of depressive symptoms, and job insecurity (male; OR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.61–2.40, female; OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 1.42–2.70) and occupational climate (male; OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.49–2.28, female; OR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.30–2.49) showed strong associations in both male and female. Other subscales revealed different effects for males and females; for males, job demands (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.43–2.20), inadequate social support (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.23–1.94), and lack of rewards (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.48–2.37) were associated with depressive symptoms, whereas for females, organizational injustice (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.14–2.30) was associated with depressive symptoms.
These results indicate that job stress may play a significant role in increasing the risk of depressive symptoms, and that further preventive efforts and research are needed to reduce job stress and address health problems caused by job stress among Korean employees.
KeywordsJob stress KOSS-SF CES-D Work culture Korea
This work was supported by INHA UNIVERSITY Research Grant.
- Chang SJ, Koh SB, Kang D, Kim SA, Kang MG, Lee CG et al (2005) Developing an occupational stress scale for Korean employees (in Korean). Korean J Occup Environ Med 17:297–317Google Scholar
- Cho MJ, Kim KH (1993) Diagnostic validity of the CES-D(Korean version) in the assessment of DSM-III-R major depression (in Korean). J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 32:381–399Google Scholar
- Hur JJ (2004) Economic crisis, income support, and employment generating programs: the Korea’s experience (in Korean). Korea Labor Institute , SeoulGoogle Scholar
- Hwang SK (2003) Job characteristics and occupational sex segregation; view form women’s work in South Korea (in Korean). Korea Labor Institute, Seoul, pp 1–107Google Scholar
- Kim JO, Muller CW (1978) Factor analysis. Statistical methods and practical issue. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Korea National Statistical Office (2005) Report on the census on basic characteristics of establishmentsGoogle Scholar
- Kudielka BM, Hanebuth D, von Kanel R, Gander ML, Grande G, Fischer JE (2005) Health-related quality of life measured by the SF12 in working populations: associations with psychosocial work characteristics. J Occup Health Psychol 10:429–440. doi: 10.1037/1076-8918.104.22.1689 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Niedhammer I, Goldberg M, Leclerc A, Bugel I, David S (1998) Psychosocial factors at work and subsequent depressive symptoms in the Gazel cohort. Scand J Work Environ Health 24:97–205Google Scholar
- Peter R, Hammarström A, Hallqvist J, Siegrist J, Theorell T, SHEEP Study Group (2006) Does occupational gender segregation influence the association of effort-reward imbalance with myocardial infarction in the SHEEP study? Int J Behav Med 13:34–43. doi: 10.1207/s15327558ijbm1301_5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yun GW (2006) Similarities and Differences in Korean, Chinese, and Japanese Corporate Cultures. Hanyang University Asia-Pacific research center 29:47–99Google Scholar