Associations of job, living conditions and lifestyle with occupational injury in working population: a population-based study
- 334 Downloads
To assess the roles of job demands, living conditions and lifestyle in occupational injury.
The sample included 2,888 workers, aged ≥15 years, randomly selected from the north-eastern France. The subjects completed a mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed with adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with the logistic model.
In total, 9.2% of workers had an injury during the previous 2 years. The high job demands: tasks at height, handling objects, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, work in adverse climate, physical workload, vibrating platform, machine tools, cold, heat, awkward posture, noise, hammer, and pace had crude odds ratios between 1.81 and 5.25 for injury. A strong exposure–response relationship was found between the cumulated job demands (CJD, defined by their number) and injury: OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.23–2.87) for CJD1, 4.39 (2.98–4.46) for CJD2–3, and 9.93 (6.70–14.7) for CJD ≥ 4, versus CJD0. These ORs decreased to 1.68, 3.70, and 7.15 respectively, when adjusted for sex, age, and living conditions/lifestyle confounders; and to 1.54, 2.99, and 5.45 respectively when also adjusted for job category. The following factors had significant ORa: age <30 years (1.54, 1.12–2.12), male (1.64, 1.18–2.30), smoking (1.60, 1.22–2.10), musculoskeletal disorders (1.54, 1.17–2.04), and frequent drug use for fatigue (2.03, 1.17–3.53). The workmen, farmers/craftsmen/tradesmen, and foremen had a 5.7–8.7-fold while the clerks and technicians a 2.7–3.6-fold higher risk compared with upper class. The risk associated with CJD was twofold higher among the workers aged ≥40 or with frequent drug use for fatigue compared with the others. Obesity had ORa 2.05 (1.11–3.78) among the subjects aged ≥40, and excess alcohol use had ORa 2.44 (1.26–4.72) among those free of disease.
This study identified a wide range of job demands and living conditions/lifestyle which predicted injury. Preventive measures should be conducted to reduce job demands and to help workers to be aware of the risk and to improve their living conditions/lifestyle.
KeywordsOccupational accident Job Living conditions Lifestyle Diseases Disabilities
The authors would like to thank D Saouag, M Weiss, M Depesme-Cuny, and B Phélut for their help in the study. The work is granted by the Pôle Européen de Santé.
- Baudier F, Arène J (1997) Baromètre santé adultes 95/96. Editions CFES, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Bhattacherjee A, Chau N, Otero Sierra C, Legras B, Benamghar L, Michaely JP, Ghosh AK, Guillemin F, Ravaud JF, Mur JM, Lorhandicap group (2003) Relationships of job and some individual characteristics to occupational injuries in employed people: a community-based study. J Occup Health 45:382–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caisse nationale de l’assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés (CNAMTS) (2002) Statistiques financières et technologiques des accidents du travail—1998–2000. CNAMTS, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Chau N, Bhattacherjee A, Bertrand JP, Meyer JP, Guillemin F, Ravaud JF, Ghosh AK, Mur JM, Lorhandicap group (2005a) Associations of occupational hazards and individual characteristics with occupational injuries and disabilities in Lorraine coal miners. In: International symposium on advances in mining technology and management, Kharagpur, 30 November–2 DecemberGoogle Scholar
- Chau N, Ravaud JF, Otero Sierra C, Legras B, Macho J, Guillemin F, Sanchez J, Mur JM, Groupe Lorhandicap (2005b) Prevalence of impairments and social inequalities: a community-based study in Lorraine. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publ 53:1–15Google Scholar
- Chau N, Gauchard G, Dehaene D, Benamghar L, Touron C, Perrin P, Mur JM (2007) Contributions of occupational hazards and human factors in occupational injuries and their associations with job, age and type of injuries in railway workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:517–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Falissard B (1998) Comprendre et utiliser les statistiques dans les sciences de la vie. 2ème édn. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Groupe de recherche Lorhandicap: Chau N, Guillemin F, Sanchez J, Ravaud JF, André JM, Michaely JP, Caria A, Dazord A, Guillaume S, Legras B, Otero Sierra C, Meyer JP, Bourgey G, Tubiana-Rufi N, Méjean L, Choquet M, Schléret Y, Ticheur MV, Chantome F, Cnockaert JC, Mur JM (2000) Approches méthodologiques dans une enquête épidémiologique sur les handicaps en Lorraine. Handicap Revue de Sciences Humaines et Sociales 88:1–23Google Scholar
- Hoffstein V (2002) Relationship between smoking and sleep apnea in clinic population. Sleep 25:519–524Google Scholar
- Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE) (1993) Recensement de la population de 1990. Sondage au ¼. INSEE. INSEE, NancyGoogle Scholar
- Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE) (2006) France métropolitaine—Enquête annuelle de recensement 2004. http://www.insee.fr/fr/recensement/nouv_recens/resultats/repartition/chiffres_cles/national/france-metropolitaine.pdf
- Jorgensen K (1998) Concepts of accident analysis. In: International Labour Office (ed) Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety. Chapter VIII. Accidents and safety management—accident prevention, vol. 3, 4th edn. ILO, GenovaGoogle Scholar
- Lorhandicap group: Chau N, Ravaud JF, Bourgkard E, Sanchez J, Choquet M, Meyer JP, Otero Sierra C, Michaely JP, Legras B, Guillemin F, Bhattacherjee A, Guillaume S, Dazord A, Méjean L, Tubiana-Rufi N, Schléret Y, Mur JM (2004) Relationships of demanding work conditions with fatigue and psychosomatic disorders: a community-based study. Occup Environ Med 61:e46–e46Google Scholar
- Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) (1988) Classification internationale des handicaps: déficiences, incapacités et désavantages. Un manuel de classification des conséquences des maladies. Paris: OMS / CTNERHI / Les Editions INSERMGoogle Scholar
- Otero Sierra C, Chau N, Macho JM, Cipponeri S, Guillaume S, Michaely JP, Mur JM, Lorhandicap group (2002) Musculoskeletal disorders for various sociooccupational categories in a French general population: a community-based study. 16th EPICOH. BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
- Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization. Workers’ health in the region of the Americas (1999) 124th session of the executive committee. Washington, D.C., 21–25 June 1999, http://www.paho.org/English/gov/ce/ce124_18.pdf
- Smith GS, Veazie MA (1998) Principles of prevention: the public health approach to reducing injuries in the workplace. In: International Labour Office (ed) Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety. Chapter VIII. Accidents and safety management—Accident prevention, vol 3, 4th edn. ILO, Genova, pp 56.1–56.42Google Scholar
- Sprince NL, Park H, Zwerling C, Lynch CF, Whitten PA, Thu K, Gillette PP, Burmeister LF, Alavanja MC (2002) Risk factors for machinery-related injury among Iowa farmers: a case-control study nested in the agricultural health study. Int J Occup Health 8:332–338Google Scholar
- Tianwu H, Watanabe Y, Asai M, Shimizu K, Takada S, Mizukoshi K (1995) Effects of alcohol ingestion on vestibular function in postural control. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) Suppl 519:127–131Google Scholar