Time to first pregnancy among women working in agricultural production

  • Alvaro J. Idrovo
  • Luz Helena Sanìn
  • Donald Cole
  • Jorge Chavarro
  • Heidy Cáceres
  • Javier Narváez
  • Mauricio Restrepo
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives: This study explores several factors potentially associated with reduced fecundability among women working in cut flowers production. Methods: A cross-sectional study of first pregnancies was undertaken in 47 Colombian floriculture companies. Two thousand and eighty-five women were interviewed regarding potential reproductive, lifestyle and work history predictors of time-to-pregnancy (TTP), measured in months. Fecundability odds ratios (fOR) were estimated using a discrete time analogue of Cox’s proportional hazard model. Results: Associated with longer TTP were: irregular relationships with her partner (fOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73–0.91), illness in the year prior to pregnancy (fOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62–0.98), smoking tobacco (fOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59–0.85), and work in flower production, less than 24 months (fOR 0.86 95% CI 0.75–0.98) or 2 years or more (fOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84). Conclusions: Work in flower production, irregular relationship, illness and tobacco exposure would be associated with impaired fecundability.

Keywords

Fertility Pesticide Occupational exposure Agriculture Colombia 

References

  1. Abell A, Juul S, Bonde JPE (2000) Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 26:131–136Google Scholar
  2. Akre O, Cnattingius S, Bergström R, Kvist U, Trichopoulos D, Ekbom A (1999) Human fertility does not decline: evidence from Sweden. Fertil Steril 71:1066–1069CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baird DD, Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR (1986) Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures. Am J Epidemiol 124:470–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Rowland AS (1991) Reporting errors in time-to-pregnancy data collected with a short questionnaire. Impact on power and estimation of fecundability ratios. Am J Epidemiol 133:1282–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brouwer DH, Brouwer R, De Milk G, Maas CL, van Hemmen JJ (1992a) Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses; part I: exposure and concomitant health risk. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53:575–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brouwer DH, Brouwer R, Tijssen S, van Hemmen JJ (1992b) Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses; part II: relationship between foliar residues and exposures. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53:582–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cristosomo L, Molina VV (2002) Pregnancy outcomes of farming households in Neuva Ecija with conventional pesticide use versus integrated pest management. Int J Occup Environ Health 8:243–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Curtis KM, Savitz DA, Weinberg CR, Arbuckle TE (1999) The effect of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy. Epidemiology 10:112–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. De Cock J, Westveer K, Heederik D, te Velde E, van Kooij R (1994) Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in The Netherlands. Occup Environ Med 51:693–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinno A (2002) DTHAZ: Stata module to compute discrete-time hazard and survival probability. Available in: http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s420701.html
  11. Florack EI, Zielhuis GA, Rolland R (1994) The influence of occupational physical activity on the menstrual cycle and fecundability. Epidemiology 5:14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanke W, Jurewicz J (2004) The risk of adverse reproductive and developmental disorders due to occupational pesticide exposure: an overview of current epidemiological evidence. Int J Occup Environ Health 17:223–243Google Scholar
  13. Hjollund TB, Jensen TK, Bonde JP, Henriksen TB, Andersson AM, Kolstad HA, Ernst E, Giwercman A, Skakkebaek NE, Olsen J (1999) Distress and reduced fertility: a follow up study of first-pregnancy planners. Fertil Steril 72:47–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1989) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Jensen TK, Hjollund NH, Henriksen TB, Scheike T, Kolstad H, Giwerkman A, Ernst E, Bonde JP, Skakkebaek NE, Olsen J (1998) Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy. BMJ 317:505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Jensen TK, Slama R, Ducot B, Suominen J, Cawood EH, Andersen AG, Eustache F, Irvine S, Auger S, Jouannet P, Vierula M, Jorgensen N, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE, Keiding N, Spira A (2001) Regional differences in waiting time to pregnancy among fertile couples from four European cities. Hum Reprod 16:2697–2704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Joffe M (1997) Time to pregnancy: a measure of reproductive function in either sex. Occup Environ Med 54:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Joffe M (2000) Time trends in biological fertility in Britain. Lancet 355:1961–1965CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Joffe M, Villard L, Li Z, Plowman R, Vessey M (1995) A time to pregnancy questionnaire designed for long term recall: validity in Oxford, England. J Epidemiol Community Health 49:314–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Juhl M, Nyboe Andersen AM, Gronbaek M, Olsen J (2001) Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy. Hum Reprod 16:2705–2709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Larsen SB, Joffe M, Bonde JP, and the Asclepios Study Group (1998) Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. Occup Environ Med 55:278–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Matos EL, Loria DJ, Albiano N, Sobel N, de Buján EC (1988) Efectos de los plaguicidas en trabajadores de cultivos intensivos. Bol Of Sanit Panam 104:160–170Google Scholar
  23. Misra DP, Grason H, Weisman C (2000) An intersection of women’s and perinatal health: the role of chronic conditions. Women’s Health Issues 10:256–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nurminen T (1995) Maternal pesticide exposure and pregnancy outcome. J Occup Environ Med 37:935–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Olsen J (1994) Options in making use of pregnancy history in planning and analysing studies of reproductive failure. J Epidemiol Community Health 48:171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Olsen J, Skov T (1993) Design options and methodological fallacies in the studies of reproductive failures. Environ Health Perspect 101(Suppl 2):S145–S152Google Scholar
  27. Parazzini F, Chatenoud E, Di Cintio E, La Vecchia C, Benzi G, Fedele L (1999) Alcohol consumption is not related to fertility in Italian women. BMJ 318:397Google Scholar
  28. Paz-y-Miño C, Bustamante G, Sánchez ME, Leone PE (2002) Cytogenetic monitoring in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Ecuador. Environ Health Perspect 110:1077–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Petrelli G, Figà-Talamanca I (2001) Reduction in fertility of male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides. Eur J Epidemiol 17:675–677CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Restrepo M, Muñoz N, Day NE, Parra JE, de Romero L, Nguyen-Dinh X (1990a) Prevalence of adverse reproductive outcomes in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Colombia. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:232–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Restrepo M, Muñoz N, Day NE, Parra JE, Hernández C, Blettner M, Giraldo A (1990b) Birth defects among children born to a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Colombia. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:239–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sallmén M, Liesivuori J, Taskinen H, Lindbohm ML, Anttila A, Aalto L, Hemminki K (2003) Time to pregnancy among the wives of Finnish greenhouses workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 29:85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharara FI, Seifer DB, Flaws JA (1998) Environmental toxicants and female reproduction. Fertil Steril 70:613–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh D (1994) Waist-to-hip ratio and judgment of attractiveness and healthiness of female figures by male and female physicians. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18:731–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Steenland K, Cedillo L, Tucker J, Hines C, Sorensen K, Deddens J, Cruz V (1997) Thyroid hormones and cytogenetic outcomes in backpack sprayers using ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicides in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 105:1126–1130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tenembaum D (2002) Would a rose not smell as sweet?. Environ Health Perspect 110:A240–A247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Thonneau P, Abell A, Larsen SB, Bonde JP, Joffe M, Clavert A, Ducot B, Multigner L, Danscher G, for the ASCLEPIOS Study Group (1999) Effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy: results of a multicenter study in France and Denmark. ASCLEPIOS Study Group. Am J Epidemiol 150:157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Tielemans E, Louwerse E, de Cock J, Brouwer D, Zielhuis G, Heederik D (1999) Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60:789–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Tolosa J, Varona M, Cárdenas O, Torres C, Pardo D, Carrasquilla G, Durana C, Leiva MC, Frumkin H (2003) Descripción del uso y manejo de plaguicidas en las empresas de flores afiliadas a Asocolflores (Informe presentado a Asocolflores). BogotáGoogle Scholar
  40. Weinberg CR, Wilcox AJ (1998) Reproductive epidemiology. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S (eds) Modern epidemiology, 2nd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 585–608Google Scholar
  41. Weinberg CR, Wilcox AJ, Baird DD (1989) Reduced fecundability in women with prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking. Am J Epidemiol 129:1072–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Weinberg CR, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ (1994) Sources of bias in studies of time to pregnancy. Stat Med 13:671–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD (1995) Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. N Engl J Med 333:1517–1521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. World Health Organization (WHO) (1990) Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou H, Weinberg CR (1999) Potential for bias in estimating human fecundability parameters: a comparison of statistical models. Stat Med 18:411–422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvaro J. Idrovo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luz Helena Sanìn
    • 3
    • 4
  • Donald Cole
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jorge Chavarro
    • 1
  • Heidy Cáceres
    • 1
  • Javier Narváez
    • 1
  • Mauricio Restrepo
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Salud Pública y Tropical, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Salud PúblicaUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaBogotá DCColombia
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Salud PúblicaCuernavacaMéxico
  3. 3.FEN/Universidad Autónoma de ChihuahuaChihuahuaMéxico
  4. 4.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of TorontoCanada
  5. 5.Institute for Work and Health TorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations