Advertisement

Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  • Lennart Hardell
  • Mikael Eriksson
  • Michael Carlberg
  • Christer Sundström
  • Kjell Hansson Mild
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the use of cellular and cordless telephones as the risk factor for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Methods: Male and female subjects aged 18–74 years living in Sweden were included during a period from 1 December 1999 to 30 April 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. Results: In total, 910 (91%) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. NHL of the B-cell type was not associated with the use of cellular or cordless telephones. Regarding T-cell NHL and >5 year latency period, the use of analogue cellular phones yielded: odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–3.70, digital: OR=1.92, 95%; CI=0.77–4.80 and cordless phones: OR=2.47; CI=1.09–5.60. The corresponding results for certain, e.g. cutaneous and leukaemia, T-cell lymphoma for analogue phones were: OR=3.41, 95%; CI=0.78–15.0, digital: OR=6.12, 95%; CI=1.26–29.7 and cordless phones: OR=5.48, 95%; CI=1.26–23.9. Conclusions: The results indicate an association between T-cell NHL and the use of cellular and cordless telephones, however based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. Regarding B-cell NHL no association was found.

Keywords

T-cell B-cell lymphoma Microwaves Risk factors Cellular Cordless phones 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Supported by grant no 2001–0224 from FAS, Cancer-och Allergifonden, Nyckelfonden, Örebro University Hospital Cancer Fund. Ms Iréne Larsson participated in the data collection and Matz Eriksson performed interviews. We thank cytologist Edneia Tani and pathologists Måns Åkerman, Göran Roos, Anna Porwit-MacDonald and Åke Öst for extensive review of the tumour material.

References

  1. Chou CK, Guy AW, Kunz LL, Johnson RB, Crowley JJ, Krupp JH (1992) Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gadhia PK, Shah T, Mistry A, Pithawala M, Tamakuwala D (2003) A preliminary study to assess possible chromosomal damage among users of digital mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med 22(2):149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Garaj-Vrhovac A, Fucic D, Horvat D (1992) The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro. Mutat Res 281:181–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hansson Mild K, Hardell L, Kundi M, Mattsson M-O (2003) Mobile phones and cancer: is there really no evidence of an association? Int J Mol Med 12:62–72Google Scholar
  5. Hardell L, Axelson O (1998) Environmental and occupational aspects on the etiology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Oncol Res 10:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hardell L, Eriksson M (1999) A case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to pesticides. Cancer 85:1353–1360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardell L, Eriksson M (2003) Is the decline of the increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Sweden and other countries a result of cancer preventive measures? Environ Health Perspect 111:1704–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hardell L, Eriksson M, Lindström G, van Bavel B, Linde A, Carlberg M, Liljegren G (2001) Case-control study on concentrations of organohalogen compounds and titres of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus antigens in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 42:619–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Carlberg M (2003a) Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours. Int J Oncol 22:399–407Google Scholar
  10. Hardell L, Eriksson M, Axelson O, Flesch-Janys D (2003b) Epidemiological studies on cancer and exposure to dioxins and related compounds. In: Schecter A, Gasiewicz T (eds) Dioxins and Health. John Wiley, Hoboken, pp 729–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2005) Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas. Occup Environ Med 62:390–394Google Scholar
  12. Jaffe E, Harris N, Stein H, Vardiman J (2001) Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. WHO Classification of Tumours. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  13. Kundi M, Hansson Mild K, Hardell L, Mattsson MO (2004) Mobile phones and cancer—a review of epidemiological evidence. J Toxicol Environ Health B 7:351–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maes A, Verschaeve L, Arroyo A, De Wagter C, Vercruyssen L (1993) In vitro cytogenetic effects of 2450 MHz waves on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics 14:495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marinelli F, La Sala D, Cicciotti G, Cattinin L, Trimarchi C, Putti S, Zamparelli A, Giuliani L, Tomasestti G, Cinti C (2004) Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. J Cell Physiol 198:324–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mashevich M, Folkman D, Kesar A, Barbul A, Korenstein R, Jerby E, Avivi L (2003) Exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to electromagnetic fields associated with cellular phones leads to chromosomal instability. Bioelectromagnetics 24:82–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nordström M, Hardell L, Linde A, Schloss L (1999) Elevated antibody levels to Epstein-Barr virus antigens in patients with hairy cell leukaemia compared to controls in relations to exposure to pesticides, organic solvents, animals and exhausts. Oncol Res 11:539–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nordström M, Hardell L, Lindström G, Wingfors H, Hardell K, Linde A (2000) Concentrations of organochlorines related to titres to Epstein-Barr virus Early Antigen (EA) IgG as risk factors for hairy cell leukaemia. Environ Health Perspect 108:441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. REFLEX final report. Risk evaluation of potential environmental hazards from low frequency electromagnetic field exposure using sensitive in vitro methods. Final Report http://www.itis.ethz.ch/downloads/REFLEX_Final%20Report_171104.pdf (assessed March 14, 2005)
  20. Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan D, Finnie J, Harris AW (1997) Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res 147:631–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rothman N, Cantor KP, Blair A, Bush D, Brock JW, Helzlsoure K, Zahm SH, Needham LL, Pearson GR, Hoover RN, Comstock GW, Strickland PT (1997) A nested case-control study on non-Hodgkin lymphoma and serum organochlorine residues. Lancet 350:240–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tice RR, Hook GG, Donner M, McRee D, Guy AW (2002) Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromagnetics 23:113–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Utteridge TD, Gebski V, Finnie JW, Vernon-Roberts B, Kuchel TR (2002) Long-term exposure of Eμ-Pim 1 Transgenic Mice to 898.4 MHz microwaves does not increase lymphoma incidence. Radiat Res 158:357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zotti-Martelli L, Peccatori M, Scarpato R, Migliore L (2000) Induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to microwave radiation. Mutat Res 472:51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lennart Hardell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mikael Eriksson
    • 3
  • Michael Carlberg
    • 4
  • Christer Sundström
    • 5
  • Kjell Hansson Mild
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of OncologyUniversity HospitalÖrebroSweden
  2. 2.Department of Natural SciencesÖrebro UniversityÖrebroSweden
  3. 3.Department of OncologyUniversity HospitalLundSweden
  4. 4.Department of OncologyUniversity HospitalÖrebroSweden
  5. 5.Department of PathologyAkademiska HospitalUppsalaSweden
  6. 6.National Institute for Working LifeUmeåSweden
  7. 7.Department of Natural SciencesÖrebro UniversityÖrebroSweden

Personalised recommendations