Novel methods in adrenal research: a metabolomics approach
Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome. All four techniques to assess and/or modulate the metabolome in biological systems provide tremendous opportunities to manage neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease of the adrenal glands in the era of precision medicine. In this context, we discuss emerging clinical applications and/or promising metabolic-driven research towards diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers in tumours arising from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia as well as modern approaches to delineate and reprogram adrenal metabolism.
KeywordsAdrenal glands In situ metabolomics Steroid metabolomics Metabologenomics Cellular reprogramming
Dr. Papathomas is supported by the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland (PathSoc 2018 Visiting Fellowship). Dr. Chortis is supported by the Academy of Medical Sciences (Starter Grant for Clinical Lecturers). Dr. Arlt and Dr Eisenhofer are supported by the European Commission Horizon 2020 Programme under Grant agreement 633893 (ENSAT-HT). Drs. Eisenhofer and Richter are supported by Grants from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (CRC/Transregio 205) and the Paradifference foundation. Dr. Walch is supported by the Ministry of Education and Research of the Federal Republic of Germany (BMBF; 01ZX1210B and 01KT1615), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 824 C4, CRC/Transregio 205/1) and the Deutsche Krebshilfe (70112617).
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