Human mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from alveolar bone and human bone marrow stromal cells: a comparative study
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of intraoral harvested alveolar bone as an alternative source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for future applications in oral and maxillofacial tissue engineering. Explant cultures were established from 20 alveolar bone samples harvested from the oblique line immediately before wisdom tooth removal. Morphology and proliferation characteristics of the in vitro expanded cells, referred to as human alveolar bone-derived cells (hABDCs), were studied using phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical analysis of their surface marker expression was conducted using monoclonal antibodies defining mesenchymal stromal cells. To evaluate their multilineage differentiation potential, hABDCs were induced to differentiate along the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineage and compared to bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) on mRNA and protein levels applying RT-PCR and cytochemical staining methods. hABDCs showed typical morphological characteristics comparable to those of hBMSCs such as being mononuclear, fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped, and plastic adherent. Immunophenotypically, cells were positive for CD105, CD90, and CD73 while negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD79α, and HLA-DR surface molecules, indicating an antigen expression pattern considered typical for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. As evidenced by RT-PCR and cytochemistry, hABDCs showed multilineage differentiation and similar chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials when compared to hBMSCs. Our findings demonstrate that human alveolar bone contains mesenchymal progenitor cells that can be isolated and expanded in vitro and are capable of trilineage differentiation, providing a reservoir of multipotent mesenchymal cells from an easily accessible tissue source.
KeywordsAlveolar bone-derived cell Multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cell Trilineage differentiation hBMSC
The authors would like to thank Mr. Rudolf Schmied for his excellent technical assistance and Dipl. Ing. Amin El-Heliebi and Dr. Martin Gauster for help in DNA preparation and analysis. Special thanks also go to Dr. Andreas Reinisch for providing hBMSCs.
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