Histochemistry and Cell Biology

, Volume 140, Issue 2, pp 201–211 | Cite as

Localization of SUMOylation factors and Osterix in odontoblast lineage cells during dentin formation and regeneration

  • Akihiro HosoyaEmail author
  • Akira Yukita
  • Tadashi Ninomiya
  • Toru Hiraga
  • Kunihiko Yoshiba
  • Nagako Yoshiba
  • Etsuo Kasahara
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
Original Paper


Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) conjugation (SUMOylation) is a post-translational modification involved in various cellular processes including the regulation of transcription factors. In this study, to analyze the involvement of SUMOylation in odontoblast differentiation, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of SUMO-1, SUMO-2/3, and Osterix during rat tooth development. At the bud and cap stages, localization of SUMOs and Osterix was hardly detected in the dental mesenchyme. At the bell stage, odontoblasts just beginning dentin matrix secretion and preodontoblasts near these odontoblasts showed intense immunoreactivity for these molecules. However, after the root-formation stage, these immunoreactivities in the odontoblasts decreased in intensity. Next, to examine whether the SUMOylation participates in dentin regeneration, we evaluated the distribution of SUMOs and Osterix in the dental pulp after cavity preparation. In the coronal pulp chamber of an untreated rat molar, odontoblasts and pulp cells showed no immunoreactivity. At 4 days after cavity preparation, positive cells for SUMOs and Osterix appeared on the surface of the dentin beneath the cavity. Odontoblast-like cells forming reparative dentin were immunopositive for SUMOs and Osterix at 1 week, whereas these immunoreactivities disappeared after 8 weeks. Additionally, we further analyzed the capacity of SUMO-1 to bind Osterix by performing an immunoprecipitation assay using C2C12 cells, and showed that Osterix could undergo SUMOylation. These results suggest that SUMOylation might regulate the transcriptional activity of Osterix in odontoblast lineage cells, and thus play important roles in odontoblast differentiation and regeneration.


SUMOylation Osterix Odontoblast differentiation Cavity preparation Dentin regeneration 



The authors would like to thank Prof. Akira Kikuchi, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hiroshima University, for providing the HA-SUMO-1 construct. This work was supported by a grant-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akihiro Hosoya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Akira Yukita
    • 1
  • Tadashi Ninomiya
    • 2
  • Toru Hiraga
    • 1
  • Kunihiko Yoshiba
    • 3
  • Nagako Yoshiba
    • 3
  • Etsuo Kasahara
    • 4
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oral HistologyMatsumoto Dental UniversityShiojiriJapan
  2. 2.Institute for Dental ScienceMatsumoto Dental UniversityShiojiriJapan
  3. 3.Division of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Department of Oral Health ScienceNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  4. 4.Department of Endodontics and Operative DentistryMatsumoto Dental UniversityShiojiriJapan

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