Characterisation of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients by the Thomsen–Friedenreich tumor antigen
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The detection of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow (DTC-BM) of breast cancer patients has proved prognostic significance in all stages of the disease. Further characterisation of those cells could help to improve the biological understanding of metastases, develop targeted therapies and define surface markers for enrichment techniques. The Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF) antigen has been shown to be a tumor specific antigen in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of TF on DTC-BM in 25 patients. Bone marrow samples were first double-stained by a Cy3 conjugated cytokeratin (CK) antibody (ab) A45 B/B3 (IgG) and anti-TF ab Nemod 2 (IgM), followed by Cy2 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgM ab. For further characterisation samples were also double-stained with anti-TF ab Nemod 2 (IgM), followed by Cy2 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgM ab, and anti MUC1 ab A76-A/C7 IgG, followed by Cy3 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. CK positive DTC-BM showed co-expression of TF antigen in 22/23 patients (96%) and 61 of 62 detected cells (98%). Mononuclear BM cells without CK expression were also negative for TF. All of the TF positive cells showed strong MUC1 expression. This is the first study showing co-expression of CK and TF as markers of DTC-BM. Double staining experiments of TF and MUC1 expression showed that MUC1 is the carrier protein of TF in these cells. As TF is a specific marker of DTC-BM, it could be used as a target for antibody based therapy and immunomagnetic enrichment techniques for the isolation of DTC-BM.
KeywordsBreast cancer Disseminated tumor cells Bone marrow Minimal residual disease Thomsen–Friedenreich antigen MUC1 Prognosis Metastasis Therapy
We thank Mrs. S. Kunze for excellent technical assistance.
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