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Histochemistry and Cell Biology

, Volume 117, Issue 2, pp 131–141 | Cite as

Pathways followed by ricin and Shiga toxin into cells

  • Kirsten Sandvig
  • Stine Grimmer
  • Silje Lauvrak
  • Maria Torgersen
  • Grethe Skretting
  • Bo van Deurs
  • Tore Iversen
Review

Abstract.

The plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin belong to a group of protein toxins that inhibit protein synthesis in cells enzymatically after entry into the cytosol. Ricin and Shiga toxin, which both have an enzymatically active moiety that inactivates ribosomes and a moiety that binds to cell surface receptors, enter the cytosol after binding to the cell surface, endocytosis by different mechanisms, and retrograde transport to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The toxins can be used to investigate the various transport steps involved, both the endocytic mechanisms as well as pathways for retrograde transport to the ER. Recent studies show that not only do several endocytic mechanisms exist in the same cell, but they are not equally sensitive to removal of cholesterol. New data have revealed that there is also more than one pathway leading from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and retrogradely from the Golgi to the ER. Trafficking of protein toxins along these pathways will be discussed in the present article.

Ricin Shiga toxin Endocytosis Golgi Endoplasmic reticulum Cholesterol 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirsten Sandvig
    • 1
  • Stine Grimmer
    • 1
  • Silje Lauvrak
    • 1
  • Maria Torgersen
    • 1
  • Grethe Skretting
    • 2
  • Bo van Deurs
    • 3
  • Tore Iversen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310 Oslo, NorwayNorway
  2. 2.MGA, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, 0033 Oslo, NorwayNorway
  3. 3.Structural Cell Biology Unit, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, DenmarkDenmark

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