Overexpression of fractalkine and its histopathological characteristics in primary pterygium

  • Meydan TuranEmail author
  • Gulay Turan
Inflammatory Disorders



This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the expressions of fractalkine in normal bulbar conjunctiva and primary pterygium tissues.


The study included 48 patients who had been operated on for primary pterygium. Histopathologically, the presence of epithelial atypia, epithelial hyperplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial lymphocytic exocytosis, stromal inflammation, mast cell count, and stromal vascularity were evaluated in the primary pterygium tissues. An immunohistochemical fractalkine stain was applied to the primary pterygium tissue samples and normal bulbar conjunctival tissue samples.


Primary pterygium and normal bulbar conjunctival tissue samples were histopathologically analyzed. Epithelial atypia, epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial lymphocytic exocytosis, stromal inflammation, stromal vascularity, and mast cell count were found to be significantly higher in the primary pterygium (p = 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.024, p = 0.007, p = 0.024, and p = 0.013, respectively). When evaluated in terms of fractalkine expression, the epithelial, vascular endothelial, and inflammatory cells were significantly higher in the primary pterygium (p ≤ 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, compared to the normal bulbar conjunctiva, Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in the primary pterygium tissue samples.


Fractalkine might play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of pterygium. Fractalkine may be important in developing new treatment approaches.


Pterygium Immunhystochemistry Fractalkine Ki-67 Conjunctiva Histopathology 



The study was supported by Scientific Investigations Foundation of Balikesir University (Project no: BAP. 2018/159).

Funding information

This study was funded by Scientific Investigations Foundation of Balikesir University (grant number 2018/159).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (ethical committee of Balikesir University Medical Faculty (Date: 05.09.2018/reference no: 2018/144)) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyBalikesir Ataturk City HospitalBalikesirTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of PathologyBalikesir UniversityBalikesirTurkey

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