Vitreo-macular interface disorders in retinitis pigmentosa
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To investigate the prevalence and progression of vitreo-macular interface disorders (VMID) phenotypes and their natural history in retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
A total of 257 eyes of 145 RP patients with VMID were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided according to the VMID subtypes into epiretinal membranes (ERMs), vitreo-macular traction (VMT) group, and macular hole (MH). Serial eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes were analyzed for a mean follow-up of 36.95 months. The status of posterior vitreous cortex was also considered. A control group of 65 eyes belonging to 65 RP patients with no macular changes was also recruited.
VMID and control groups had the same baseline BCVA (0.50 vs 0.44 LogMAR) and did not differ in terms of phakic status. Different VMID groups had similar BCVA at baseline (p = 0.98). ERM represented the most prevalent disorder (207/257 eyes, 80.5%), followed by 35/257 (13.6%) VMT, and 15/257 Lamellar MH (LMH) eyes (5.8%). There were no cases of full thickness MH. Throughout the 36.9 months of follow-up, BCVA decreased an average 0.09 LogMAR from 0.31 to 0.4 in VMID patients and 0.01 in controls. VMID subgroup analysis showed a significant BCVA decrease in ERM patients (− 20.29%, p < 0.001), while VMT and LMH did not change significantly. Foveal thickness also remained stable over time. Complete PVD was present in 11 eyes in ERM, VMT, and LMH.
Our study confirms the high prevalence of VMID in RP patients; however, only ERMs determined a significant loss of vision over 24 months. The high prevalence of VMID in RP patients suggests that macular alteration other than edema represents part of disease spectrum.
KeywordsRetinitis pigmentosa Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography Epiretinal membrane Vitreo-macular traction Lamellar macular hole Vitreo-macular interface disorders
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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