Impact of antibiotic resistance of pathogens and early vitrectomy on the prognosis of infectious endophthalmitis: a 10-year retrospective study

  • Eun Young Choi
  • Jae Yong Han
  • Hyukmin Lee
  • Sung Chul Lee
  • Hyoung Jun Koh
  • Sung Soo Kim
  • Min KimEmail author
Inflammatory Disorders



Infectious endophthalmitis (IE) is a severe complication that can lead to blindness even with treatment. However, the impact of antibiotic resistance and early vitrectomy on its prognosis has scarcely been documented. This study investigated the impact of antibiotic resistance of pathogen and early vitrectomy on the prognosis of IE.


The medical records of 171 patients treated for IE at a tertiary referral center between 2007 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed for etiology, pathogen, drug resistance to vancomycin or third-generation cephalosporins, treatment types and timing, and visual outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant prognostic factors.


Among 171 eyes, 121 (70.8%) eyes developed IE after intraocular surgery (cataract surgery, 46.3%; intraocular injection, 13.2%), 37 (21.6%) eyes developed IE endogenously, and 9 (5.3%) eyes developed IE after trauma. The major causative pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (9.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.0%). In total, 72.6% of the identified pathogens demonstrated antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance was associated with a worse final vision (P = .027). Visual prognosis was better for eyes treated with early vitrectomy combined with intravitreal antimicrobial injections within 24 h of onset than for eyes that received only intravitreal antimicrobial injections before undergoing delayed vitrectomy (P = .003).


Antibiotic resistance of organisms causing IE is one of the most important prognostic factors. Early vitrectomy (i.e., within 24 h) may be helpful for achieving a better visual outcome. Immediate vitrectomy can be recommended, especially in IE cases caused by organisms with resistance to empirically used antibiotics.


Infectious endophthalmitis Intraocular antibiotic injection Early vitrectomy Antibiotic resistance Prognostic factor 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures conducted in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Research Committee (Institutional Review Board at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea), as well as with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent not was required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Gangnam Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial ResistanceYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Severance HospitalYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

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