Comparison of objective accommodation in phakic and pseudophakic eyes between age groups

  • Byunghoon Chung
  • Seonghee Choi
  • Yong Woo Ji
  • Eung Kweon Kim
  • Kyoung Yul Seo
  • Tae-im KimEmail author



To compare objective accommodation of phakic and pseudophakic eyes between two different age groups.


Eighty-three eyes (83 participants aged ≥ 40 years) with a visual acuity of 20/25 or better, and refractive error < spherical − 1.0 diopters (D) and cylindrical 1.0 D, were included. Forty-four patients had undergone phacoemulsification and monofocal intraocular lens implantation and were examined 6 months post-surgery. Participants were divided into groups 1 (pseudophakic, age < 60 years), 2 (pseudophakic, ≥ 60 years), 3 (phakic, < 60 years), and 4 (phakic, ≥ 60 years). Objective accommodation and pupil diameter to 2.0- and 3.0-D stimuli were measured with a binocular open-field autorefractor.


The mean objective accommodation was 0.29 ± 0.47 D, 0.01 ± 0.21 D, 1.00 ± 0.88 D, and 0.01 ± 0.13 to a 2.0-D stimulus, and 0.26 ± 0.51 D, − 0.06 ± 0.21 D, 1.42 ± 1.21 D, and − 0.06 ± 0.21 to a 3.0-D stimulus in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. For both stimuli, the values in group 1 exceeded those in groups 2 and 4, and were smaller than those in group 3, while the values in group 3 exceeded those in groups 2 and 4. The mean pupillary diameter was − 0.5 ± 0.8 mm, − 0.3 ± 0.8 mm, − 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and − 0.6 ± 0.9 mm to a 2.0-D stimulus, and − 0.6 ± 0.8 mm, − 0.6 ± 0.8 mm, − 0.9 ± 0.5 mm, and − 1.0 ± 1.1 mm to a 3.0-D stimulus in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. There was significant correlation between objective accommodation and changes of pupil size for both stimuli.


Age seems to play a role in objective accommodation among relatively young pseudophakic patients.


Accommodation Pseudoaccommodation Pseudophakia Presbyopia 



This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number, HI18C1111).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byunghoon Chung
    • 1
  • Seonghee Choi
    • 1
  • Yong Woo Ji
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eung Kweon Kim
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kyoung Yul Seo
    • 1
  • Tae-im Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.The Institute of Vision Research, Department of OphthalmologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyNational Health Insurance Service Ilsan HospitalGoyangRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Corneal Dystrophy Research InstituteYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulRepublic of Korea

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