Effect of uncorrection versus full correction on myopia progression in 12-year-old children

  • Yun-Yun Sun
  • Shi-Ming LiEmail author
  • Si-Yuan Li
  • Meng-Tian Kang
  • Luo-Ru Liu
  • Bo Meng
  • Feng-Ju Zhang
  • Michel Millodot
  • Ningli WangEmail author



To investigate the effects of no correction versus full correction on myopia progression in Chinese children over a period of 2 years.


Myopia was defined as cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of ≤ −0.50 D. Uncorrection was defined as no spectacles worn, and full correction was defined as when the value of SE subtracted from the dioptric power of the child’s current spectacles was less than 0.5 D. Ocular examinations included visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, axial length and vertometer measurements. Questionnaires were completed by parents on behalf of the children.


A total of 121 myopic children, with a median age of 12.7 years, were screened from the Anyang Childhood Eye Study, with 65 in the uncorrected group and 56 in the full correction group. At 2-year follow-up, children with no correction had slower myopia progression (−0.75 ± 0.49 D vs. −1.04 ± 0.49 D, P < 0.01) and less axial elongation (0.45 ± 0.18 mm vs. 0.53 ± 0.17 mm, P = 0.02) than children with full correction. In multivariate modeling, adjusting for baseline SE or axial length, age, gender, height, number of myopic parents, age at myopia onset, and time spent in near work and outdoors, children with no correction still had slower myopia progression (−0.76 ± 0.07 vs. −1.03 ± 0.08 D, P < 0.01) and less axial elongation (0.47 ± 0.03 mm vs. 0.51 ± 0.03 mm, P < 0.01). Myopia progression decreased significantly with an increasing amount of undercorrection in all children (r = 0.22, b = 0.16, P = 0.01).


Our findings suggest that myopic defocus slows the progression of myopia in already myopic children, supporting previous findings from animal studies.


Uncorrection Full correction Myopia progression Myopic defocus Children 



This study was supported by the Beijing Nova Program (Z121107002512055), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81300797), the Major International (Regional) Joint Research Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81120108007), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (“973” Program, 2011CB504601) of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Research Foundation of Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (2012-YJJ-019). We thank He Li, Yi-Peng Wang, Si-Yan Zhan, and Xiu-Hua Wan for their help on this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; or expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements) or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the institutional review board of Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University. The ACES conformed to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

Written informed consent from at least one parent and verbal assent from children were obtained after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun-Yun Sun
    • 1
  • Shi-Ming Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Si-Yuan Li
    • 2
  • Meng-Tian Kang
    • 1
  • Luo-Ru Liu
    • 3
  • Bo Meng
    • 4
  • Feng-Ju Zhang
    • 1
  • Michel Millodot
    • 5
  • Ningli Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Science Key Lab, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Children’s HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Anyang Eye HospitalAnyangChina
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Health StatisticsPeking University School of Public HealthBeijingChina
  5. 5.School of Optometry and Vision SciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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