Advertisement

Relationship between metamorphopsia and foveal microstructure in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and cystoid macular edema

  • Tomoya Murakami
  • Fumiki OkamotoEmail author
  • Masaharu Iida
  • Yoshimi Sugiura
  • Yoshifumi Okamoto
  • Takahiro Hiraoka
  • Tetsuro Oshika
Retinal Disorders

Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of metamorphopsia and the foveal microstructure measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO-CME).

Methods

The study included 30 eyes of 30 patients with BRVO-CME. We examined visual acuity and the severity of metamorphopsia using M-CHARTS. Central foveal thickness, central retinal thickness at the fovea (CRT-1 mm), and macular volume were measured with SD-OCT software. The status of ellipsoid zone (EZ), external limiting membrane (ELM), outer retinal cyst, and inner retinal cyst was also evaluated.

Results

The mean metamorphopsia score was 0.77 ± 0.50, with 28 of 30 patients (93 %) having metamorphopsia (metamorphopsia score ≥ 0.2). The vertical metamorphopsia score (0.89 ± 0.54) was significantly higher than the horizontal metamorphopsia score (0.64 ± 0.53) (p < 0.005). The status of EZ and ELM was significantly associated with visual acuity, but not with the mean metamorphopsia score. The mean metamorphopsia score was significantly related to CRT-1 mm (p < 0.05) and the presence of inner retinal cyst (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The severity of metamorphopsia was significantly associated with central retinal thickness and the presence of inner retinal cyst.

Keywords

Branch retinal vein occlusion Cystoid macular edema Metamorphopsia Optical coherence tomography 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

No funding was received for this research.

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Financial support

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Shahid H, Hossain P, Amoaku WM (2006) The management of retinal vein occlusion: is interventional ophthalmology the way forward? Br J Ophthalmol 90:627–639CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mitchell P, Smith W, Chang A (1996) Prevalence and associations of retinal vein occlusion in Australia. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol 114:1243–1247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheung N, Klein R, Wang JJ et al (2008) Traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:4297–4302CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu W, Xu L, Jonas JB (2007) Vein occlusion in Chinese subjects. Ophthalmology 114:1795–1796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lim LL, Cheung N, Wang JJ et al (2008) Prevalence and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion in an Asian population. Br J Ophthalmol 92:1316–1319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yasuda M, Kiyohara Y, Arakawa S et al (2010) Prevalence and systemic risk factor of retinal vein occlusion in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3205–3209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arakawa S, Yasuda M, Nagata M et al (2011) Nine-year incidence and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:5905–5909CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rogers SL, McIntosh RL, Lim L et al (2010) Natural history of branch retinal vein occlusion: an evidence-based systematic review. Ophthalmology 117:1094–1101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Okamoto Y, Okamoto F, Hiraoka T, Oshika T (2014) Vision-related quality of life and visual function following intravitreal bevacizumab injection for persistent diabetic macular edema after vitrectomy. Jpn J Ophthalmol 58:369–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okamoto F, Okamoto Y, Fukuda S et al (2010) Vision-related quality of life and visual function after vitrectomy for various vitreoretinal disorders. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:744–751CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Okamoto F, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, Oshika T (2009) Effect of vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane on visual function and vision-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol 147:869–874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fukuda S, Okamoto F, Yuasa M et al (2009) Vision-related quality of life and visual function in patients undergoing vitrectomy, gas tamponade and cataract surgery for macular hole. Br J Ophthalmol 93:1595–1599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hayreh SS (2014) Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: natural history of visual outcome. Prog Retin Eye Res 41:1–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakagawa T, Harino S, Iwahashi Y (2007) Quantification of metamorphopsia in the course of branch retinal vein occlusion with M-CHARTS. Nihon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 111:331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim JH, Kang SW, Kong MG, Ha HS (2013) Assessment of retinal layers and visual rehabilitation after epiretinal membrane removal. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 251:1055–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Okamoto F, Sugiura Y, Okamoto Y, Hiraoka T, Oshika T (2012) Associations between metamorphopsia and foveal microstructure in patients with epiretinal membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:6770–6775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ooto S, Hangai M, Takayama K et al (2011) High-resolution imaging of the photoreceptor layer in epiretinal membrane using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmology 118:873–881CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bae SH, Kim D, Park TK et al (2013) Preferential hyperacuity perimeter and prognostic factors for metamorphopsia after idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 155:109–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arimura E, Matsumoto C, Okuyama S et al (2007) Quantification of metamorphopsia in a macular hole patient using M-CHARTS. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 85:55–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim JH, Kang SW, Park DY et al (2012) Asymmetric elongation of foveal tissue after macular hole surgery and its impact on metamorphopsia. Ophthalmology 119:2133–2140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bae SW, Chae JB (2013) Assessment of metamorphopsia in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol 61:172–175CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ota M, Tsujikawa A, Murakami T et al (2008) Foveal photoreceptor layer in eyes with persistent cystoid macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 145:273–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yamane N, Tsujikawa A, Ota M et al (2008) Three-dimensional imaging of cystoid macular edema in retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 115:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matsumoto C, Arimura E, Okuyama S et al (2003) Quantification of metamorphopsia in patients with epiretinal membranes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:4012–4016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arimura E, Matsumoto C, Okuyama S et al (2005) Retinal contraction and metamorphopsia scores in eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2961–2966CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Okamoto F, Sugiura Y, Okamoto Y et al (2014) Metamorphopsia and optical coherence tomography findings after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 157:214–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nowomiejska K, Oleszczuk A, Brzozowska A et al (2013) M-charts as a tool for quantifying metamorphopsia in age-related macular degeneration treated with the bevacizumab injections. BMC Ophthalmol 13:13CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Watanabe A, Arimoto S, Nishi O (2009) Correlation between metamorphopsia and epiretinal membrane optical coherence tomography findings. Ophthalmology 116:1788–1793CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Terasaki H, Miyake K, Miyake Y (2003) Reduced oscillatory potentials of the full-field electroretinogram of eyes with aphakic or pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 135:477–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Noma H, Funatsu H, Harino S et al (2014) Association of electroretinogram and morphological findings in branch retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. Doc Ophthalmol 123:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Noma H, Mimura T, Kuse M, Shimada K (2014) Association of electroretinogram and morphological findings in central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. Clin Ophthalmol 8:191–197CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wachtmeister L, Dowling JE (1978) The oscillatory potentials of the mudpuppy retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 17:1176–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yonemura D, Kawasaki K (1978) Electrophysiological study on activities of neuronal and nonneuronal retinal elements in man with reference to its clinical application. Jpn J Ophthalmol 22:195–213Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heynen H, Wachtmeister L, van Norren D (1985) Origin of the oscillatory potentials in the primate retina. Vis Res 25:1365–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mustafi D, Engel AH, Palczewski K (2009) Structure of cone photoreceptors. Prog Retin Eye Res 28:289–302CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sieving PA, Murayama K, Naarendorp F (1994) Push-pull model of the primate photopic electroretinogram: a role for hyperpolarizing neurons in shaping the b-wave. Vis Neurosci 11:519–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen H, Wu D, Huang S, Yan H (2006) The photopic negative response of the flash electroretinogram in retinal vein occlusion. Doc Ophthalmol 113:53–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krasnicki P, Dmuchowska DA, Pawluczuk B et al (2015) Metamorphopsia before and after full-thickness macular hole surgery. Adv Med Sci 60:162–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scott IU, VanVeldhuisen PC, Oden NL et al (2009) SCORE Study report 1: baseline associations between central retinal thickness and visual acuity in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 116:504–512CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Browning DJ, Glassman AR, Aiello LP et al (2007) Relationship between optical coherence tomography-measured central retinal thickness and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 114:525–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoya Murakami
    • 1
  • Fumiki Okamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masaharu Iida
    • 1
  • Yoshimi Sugiura
    • 1
  • Yoshifumi Okamoto
    • 1
  • Takahiro Hiraoka
    • 1
  • Tetsuro Oshika
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations