Epiretinal proliferation in lamellar macular holes and full-thickness macular holes: clinical and surgical findings

  • Tso-Ting Lai
  • San-Ni Chen
  • Chung-May Yang
Retinal Disorders



To report the clinical findings and surgical outcomes of lamellar macular holes (LMH) with or without lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP), and those of full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) presenting with LHEP.


From 2009 to 2013, consecutive cases of surgically treated LMH, and all FTMH cases with LHEP were reviewed, given a follow-up time over 1 year.


In the LMH group (43 cases), those with LHEP (19 cases) had significantly thinner bases and larger openings than those without (24 cases). The rate of disrupted IS/OS line was higher in the LHEP subgroup preoperatively (68.4 % vs 37.5 %), but similar between subgroups postoperatively (36.8 % and 33.3 %). The preoperative and postoperative visual acuity showed no significant difference between two subgroups. In the FTMH group (13 cases), the average hole size was 219.2 ± 92.1 μm. Permanent or transient spontaneous hole closure was noted in 69.2 % of cases. An intact IS-OS line was found in only 23 % of cases at the final follow-up.


In the LMH group, LHEP was associated with a more severe defect but didn’t affect surgical outcomes. In the FTMH group, spontaneous hole closure was frequently noted. Despite small holes, disruption of IS-OS line was common after hole closure.


Epiretinal membrane Epiretinal proliferation Full-thickness macular hole Lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation Lamellar macular hole Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 


Conflict of interest statement

All authors certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge, or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Presentation at a conference



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyNational Taiwan University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyChanghua Christian HospitalChanghuaTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of MedicineChung-Shan Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of MedicineKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  5. 5.College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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