Effect of undercorrection on myopia progression in 12-year-old children

  • Si Yuan Li
  • Shi-Ming LiEmail author
  • Yue Hua Zhou
  • Luo Ru Liu
  • He Li
  • Meng Tian Kang
  • Si Yan Zhan
  • Ningli WangEmail author
  • Michel Millodot



To prospectively observe the effects of undercorrection of myopia on myopia progression and axial elongation in a population of 12-year-old Chinese children.


A total of 2,267 children in the Anyang Childhood Eye Study were examined at baseline, and 1,769 were followed for 1 year. Ocular examinations included cycloplegic autorefraction, axial length, visual acuity, vertometry, and accommodative lag. Questionnaires were completed by children and parents. Undercorrection of myopia was determined at baseline if presenting visual acuity could be improved by at least 2 lines with subjective refraction.


Of 253 myopic children with spectacles and available information, 120 (47.4 %) were undercorrected (−4.63D  to −0.50D) and 133 (52.6 %) were fully corrected. In a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, number of myopic parents, time spent on near work and outdoor activities per day, usage and time for wearing spectacles per day, children with undercorrection had significantly more baseline myopia (P < 0.01) and longer axial length (P = 0.03) than children with full correction. However, there were no significant differences in myopia progression (P = 0.46) and axial elongation (P = 0.96) at 1 year between the two groups of children. The regression analysis showed that myopia progression significantly decreased with increasing amount of undercorrection (r 2 = 0.02, P = 0.02) in all children. Accommodative lag significantly decreased with increasing amounts of undercorrection (P < 0.01).


Based on this 1-year study in Chinese children, undercorrection or full correction of myopia by wearing spectacles did not show any differences in myopia progression or axial elongation.


Myopia progression Undercorrection Full correction Children 



The ACES was supported by Beijing Nova Program (Z121107002512055), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (“973” Program, 2011CB504601) of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Major International (Regional) Joint Research Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81120108007), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81300797), and Research Foundation of Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (2012-YJJ-019).

All authors certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Si Yuan Li
    • 1
  • Shi-Ming Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yue Hua Zhou
    • 1
  • Luo Ru Liu
    • 2
  • He Li
    • 2
  • Meng Tian Kang
    • 1
  • Si Yan Zhan
    • 3
  • Ningli Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michel Millodot
    • 4
  1. 1.Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key LaboratoryBeijingChina
  2. 2.Anyang Eye HospitalHenan ProvinceChina
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Health StatisticsPeking University School of Public HealthBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Optometry and Vision SciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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