Megahertz ultra-wide-field swept-source retina optical coherence tomography compared to current existing imaging devices

  • Lukas ReznicekEmail author
  • Thomas Klein
  • Wolfgang Wieser
  • Marcus Kernt
  • Armin Wolf
  • Christos Haritoglou
  • Anselm Kampik
  • Robert Huber
  • Aljoscha S. Neubauer



To investigate the image quality of wide-angle cross-sectional and reconstructed fundus images based on ultra-megahertz swept-source Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) OCT compared to current generation diagnostic devices.


A 1,050 nm swept-source FDML OCT system was constructed running at 1.68 MHz A-scan rate covering approximately 70° field of view. Twelve normal eyes were imaged with the device applying an isotropically dense sampling protocol (1,900 × 1,900 A-scans) with a fill factor of 100 %. Obtained OCT scan image quality was compared with two commercial OCT systems (Heidelberg Spectralis and Stratus OCT) of the same 12 eyes. Reconstructed en-face fundus images from the same FDML-OCT data set were compared to color fundus, infrared and ultra-wide-field scanning laser images (SLO).


Comparison of cross-sectional scans showed a high overall image quality of the 15× averaged FDML images at 1.68 MHz [overall quality grading score: 8.42 ± 0.52, range 0 (bad)—10 (excellent)] comparable to current spectral-domain OCTs (overall quality grading score: 8.83 ± 0.39, p = 0.731). On FDML OCT, a dense 3D data set was obtained covering also the central and mid-peripheral retina. The reconstructed FDML OCT en-face fundus images had high image quality comparable to scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) as judged from retinal structures such as vessels and optic disc. Overall grading score was 8.36 ± 0.51 for FDML OCT vs 8.27 ± 0.65 for SLO (p = 0.717).


Ultra-wide-field megahertz 3D FDML OCT at 1.68 MHz is feasible, and provides cross-sectional image quality comparable to current spectral-domain OCT devices. In addition, reconstructed en-face visualization of fundus images result in a wide-field view with high image quality as compared to currently available fundus imaging devices. The improvement of >30× in imaging speed over commercial spectral-domain OCT technology enables high-density scan protocols leading to a data set for high quality cross-sectional and en-face images of the posterior segment.


Oct Imaging Retinal imaging Ultra-wide-field Mhz OCT FDML OCT En face Cross-sectional scan Swept source 



We would like to thank the "Gesellschaft der Freunde und Förderer der Augenklinik der LMU München e. V." for generous support of this project.

T.K., W.W. and R.H. acknowledge the support from Prof. W. Zinth at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. This research was sponsored by the Emmy Noether program of the German Research Foundation (DFG – HU 1006/2-1) as well as by the European Union projects FUN-OCT (FP7 HEALTH, contract no. 201880) and FDML-Raman (FP7 ERC, contract no. 259158).

Competing Interest

None to declare.

Financial interests

R. Huber holds a patent on LightLab Imaging (P).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukas Reznicek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thomas Klein
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Wieser
    • 2
  • Marcus Kernt
    • 1
  • Armin Wolf
    • 1
  • Christos Haritoglou
    • 1
  • Anselm Kampik
    • 1
  • Robert Huber
    • 2
  • Aljoscha S. Neubauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Biomolecular Optics, Faculty of PhysicsLudwig-Maximilians-UniversityMunichGermany

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