Ischemic optic neuropathies — where are we now?

Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00417-013-2399-z

Cite this article as:
Hayreh, S.S. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2013) 251: 1873. doi:10.1007/s00417-013-2399-z


Ischemic optic neuropathy is of two types: anterior and posterior. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is the most common type of ischemic optic neuropathy. There are three major misconceptions about NA-AION: (1) that its pathogenesis is not known, (2) that NA-AION and ischemic cerebral stroke are similar in nature, pathogenetically and in management, and (3) that there is no treatment. All these misconceptions are based on lack of in-depth knowledge of the subject. They are discussed in the light of our current scientific knowledge. The pathogenesis of NA-AION is known but is highly complex. NA-AION and ischemic cerebral stroke are very different clinical entities, pathogenetically and in management. Aspirin has no beneficial effect. Corticosteroid therapy during the initial stages can be beneficial. To reduce the risk of development of NA-AION in the other eye or of further visual loss in the same eye, it is essential to reduce as many risk factors as possible. Management of arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy is discussed.


Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy Giant cell arteritis Ischemic optic neuropathies Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy Optic nerve Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesUniversity Hospitals & ClinicsIowa CityUSA

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