Advertisement

Fluid dynamics simulation of aqueous humour in a posterior-chamber phakic intraocular lens with a central perforation

  • Takushi KawamoritaEmail author
  • Hiroshi Uozato
  • Kimiya Shimizu
Refractive Surgery

Abstract

Background

A modified implantable collamer lens (ICL) with a central hole (diameter, 0.36 mm), a “Hole-ICL”, was created to improve aqueous humour circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fluid dynamic characteristics of aqueous humour in a Hole-ICL using computational fluid dynamics.

Methods

Fluid dynamics simulation using an ICL was performed with thermal-hydraulic analysis software FloEFD V5 (Mentor Graphics Corp.). For the simulation, three-dimensional eye models based on a modified Liou–Brennan model eye with conventional ICL (Model ICM, STAAR SURGICAL) and a Hole-ICL were used. Both ICLs were −9.0 diopters (D) and 12.0 mm in length, with an optic of 5.5 mm. The vaulting was 0.50 mm. The quantity of aqueous humour produced by the ciliary body was set at 2.80 μl/min. Flow distribution between the anterior surface of the crystalline lens and the posterior surface of the ICL was also calculated, and trajectory analysis was performed.

Results

The flow velocity 0.25 mm in front of the centre of the crystalline lens was 1.52 × 10-1 mm/sec for the Hole-ICL and 1.21 × 10-5 mm/sec for the conventional ICL. Outward flow from the hole in the Hole-ICL was confirmed by trajectory analysis.

Conclusion

These results suggest that Hole-ICLs improve the circulation of aqueous humour to the anterior surface of the crystalline lens.

Keywords

Fluid dynamics Phakic IOL ICL Hole-ICL Aqueous humour circulation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by a grant from the Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences (Grant-in-Aid for Research Project, No. 2010–1029) (T.K.), a Kitasato University Research Grant for Young Researchers 2010–2011) (T.K.), and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (T.K.). The authors thank KOZO KEIKAKU ENGINEERING Inc. (Mr. Osamu Kuwahara, Mr. Soichi Masuda, and Dr. Tsuyoshi Yamada) for technical support, and American journal experts for critical reading of the manuscript.

Financial disclosure

Takushi Kawamorita, None; Hiroshi Uozato, None. Dr. Shimizu received a consulting fee from STAAR.

Supplementary material

417_2011_1850_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.9 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 2967 kb)
ESM 2

(AVI 9887 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Chen LJ, Chang YJ, Kuo JC, Rajagopal R, Azar DT (2008) Metaanalysis of cataract development after phakic intraocular lens surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 34:1181–1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lovisolo CF, Reinstein DZ (2005) Phakic intraocular lenses. Surv Ophthalmol 50:549–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kamiya K, Shimizu K, Aizawa D, Igarashi A, Komatsu M, Nakamura A (2010) One-year follow-up of posterior chamber toric phakic intraocular lens implantation for moderate to high myopic astigmatism. Ophthalmology 117:2287–2294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sanders DR, Schneider D, Martin R, Brown D, Dulaney D, Vukich J, Slade S, Schallhorn S (2007) Toric Implantable Collamer Lens for moderate to high myopic astigmatism. Ophthalmology 114:54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujisawa K, Shimizu K, Uga S, Suzuki M, Nagano K, Murakami Y, Goseki H (2007) Changes in the crystalline lens resulting from insertion of a phakic IOL (ICL) into the porcine eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 245:114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shiratani T, Shimizu K, Fujisawa K, Uga S, Nagano K, Murakami Y (2008) Crystalline lens changes in porcine eyes with implanted phakic IOL (ICL) with a central hole. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:719–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fechner PU, Haigis W, Wichmann W (1996) Posterior chamber myopia lenses in phakic eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 22:178–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lindland A, Heger H, Kugelberg M, Zetterstrom C (2010) Vaulting of myopic and toric Implantable Collamer Lenses during accommodation measured with Visante optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology 117:1245–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schmidinger G, Lackner B, Pieh S, Skorpik C (2010) Long-term changes in posterior chamber phakic intraocular collamer lens vaulting in myopic patients. Ophthalmology 117:1506–1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alfonso JF, Lisa C, Abdelhamid A, Fernandes P, Jorge J, Montes-Mico R (2010) Three-year follow-up of subjective vault following myopic implantable collamer lens implantation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 248:1827–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khalifa YM, Moshirfar M, Mifflin MD, Kamae K, Mamalis N, Werner L (2010) Cataract development associated with collagen copolymer posterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses: clinicopathological correlation. J Cataract Refract Surg 36:1768–1774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yan PS, Lin HT, Wang QL, Zhang ZP (2010) Anterior segment variations with age and accommodation demonstrated by slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology 117:2301–2307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alio JL, de la Hoz F, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Salem TF (2000) Cataract surgery in highly myopic eyes corrected by phakic anterior chamber angle-supported lenses(1). J Cataract Refract Surg 26:1303–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanders DR, Vukich JA (2002) Incidence of lens opacities and clinically significant cataracts with the implantable contact lens: comparison of two lens designs. J Refract Surg 18:673–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Uozato H, Shimizu K, Kawamorita T, Ohmoto F (2011) Modulation transfer function of intraocular collamer lens with a central artificial hole. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 249:1081–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohmoto F, Shimizu K, Uozato H, Kawamorita T, Uga S (2010) Optical performances of Implantable Collamer Lenses with and without a central perforation. Kitasato Med J 40:150–153Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takushi Kawamorita
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hiroshi Uozato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kimiya Shimizu
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Orthoptics and Visual ScienceKitasato University School of Allied Health SciencesSagamihara CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual ScienceKitasato University Graduate School of Medical SciencesSagamiharaJapan
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyKitasato University School of MedicineSagamiharaJapan

Personalised recommendations