Astaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocity

  • Michiyuki Saito
  • Kazuhiko YoshidaEmail author
  • Wataru Saito
  • Akio Fujiya
  • Kazuhiro Ohgami
  • Nobuyoshi Kitaichi
  • Hiroki Tsukahara
  • Susumu Ishida
  • Shigeaki Ohno
Basic Science



Previous studies have reported that astaxanthin (AXT) has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to its ability to shorten blood transit times. As laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) can noninvasively visualize the hemodynamics of the choroidal circulation, we used the technique to evaluate whether continuous ingestion of 12 mg of AXT per day could increase quantitative blood flow velocity.


In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined 20 healthy volunteers who ingested 12 mg AXT or placebo capsules over a 4-week period. LSFG was measured in the right eyes of all subjects at pre-ingestion, and at 2 and 4 weeks after the treatment of AXT. LSFG values were used to calculate the square blur rate (SBR), which is a quantitative index of relative blood flow velocity.


A significant increase of the macular SBR was seen 4 weeks after AXT ingestion when compared to the pre-ingestion values (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.018). In contrast, no statistical difference in the macular SBR was detected in the placebo group (Friedman test, P = 0.598). No subjective or objective adverse events were found after the 12-mg AXT ingestion.


Results suggest that administration of AXT over a 4-week period can elevate the choroidal blood flow velocity without any adverse effects.


Astaxanthin Laser speckle flowgraphy Choroidal blood flow velocity 



This work was supported by the 21st Century COE Program “Topological Science and Technology”, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology, Japan.

Conflict of interest

Hiroki Tsukahara is an employee of Fuji Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. The AXT capsules were provided by the company.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiyuki Saito
    • 1
  • Kazuhiko Yoshida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wataru Saito
    • 1
  • Akio Fujiya
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Ohgami
    • 1
  • Nobuyoshi Kitaichi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroki Tsukahara
    • 3
  • Susumu Ishida
    • 1
  • Shigeaki Ohno
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyHealth Sciences University of HokkaidoSapporoJapan
  3. 3.Fuji Chemical Industry Co., LtdTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Ocular Inflammation and ImmunologyHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan

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