The rate of myocardial infarction events among patients with age-related macular degeneration: a population-based study

  • Shani Golan
  • Varda Shalev
  • Michaela Goldstein
  • Giora Treister
  • Gabriel Chodick
  • Anat Loewenstein
Retinal Disorders



To examine the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the risk of myocardial infarctions (MIs) in a large health maintenance organization.


A retrospective cohort study carried out at Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS).


A total of 6,546 patients aged ≥65 years who were diagnosed with AMD between April 18 1996 and June 6 2008, and 61,672 non-AMD patients frequency-matched for age and gender.


Participants were retrospectively followed to the day of leaving the MHS, to undergoing an MI, or to closure of the study on July 1 2008, whichever came earlier. The relative risk of MI associated with AMD was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model.

Main Outcome Measures

Incident myocardial infarction events.


During the study period, there were 159 (5.1 per 1,000 person years [PY]) and 2,997 (4.2 per 1,000 PY) MIs respecively in the AMD and non-AMD patient groups. The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of MI among AMD patients was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.85–1.20). Baseline medical characteristics associated with increased risk of mortality included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, older age, and male gender. The fully adjusted HR associated with AMD was 1.03 (95%CI: 0.87–1.22).


Despite the shared risk factors associated with AMD and MIs, we found no increased risk of MI in AMD patients.


Arterial thromboembolic events—ATEs Myocardial infarctions—MIs Health maintenance organization—HMO 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shani Golan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Varda Shalev
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michaela Goldstein
    • 1
    • 3
  • Giora Treister
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gabriel Chodick
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anat Loewenstein
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyTel Aviv Sourasky Medical CenterTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Maccabi Health Care ServicesTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel- AvivIsrael

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