Advertisement

The effect of iodide iontophoresis on the antioxidative capacity of the tear fluid

  • Gebhard Rieger
  • Manfred Klieber
  • Wolfgang Schimetta
  • Werner Pölz
  • Sirid Griebenow
  • Rudolf Winkler
  • Jutta Horwath-Winter
  • Otto Schmut
  • Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner
Medical Ophthalmology

Abstract

Background

Environmental oxidative stress changing the properties of the tear fluid can lead to keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye syndrome). The aim of this study was to determine whether iodide iontophoresis influences the antioxidative capacity (ACW = water soluble antioxidative capacity) of the tear fluid, and to compare iodide iontophoresis with other balneotherapeutic measures.

Methods

This prospective study evaluated 92 patients in four groups. Twenty-four patients were treated with iodide iontophoresis, 24 with other balneotherapeutic methods. Twenty-five patients received iodide iontophoresis combined with other balneotherapeutic methods and 21 persons received no treatment (control). Unstimulated tear fluid, serum and urine were collected. ACW was determined photochemically in tear fluid and serum; iodine was measured in urine photometrically.

Results

Iodide iontophoresis increases the ACW of the tear fluid but not the ACW of the serum. Other iodine therapies increase the ACW in serum but not in tear fluid. Iodine excretion in urine was increased in all treated groups compared to the control.

Conclusion

The increase of ACW in tear fluid after iodide iontophoresis can support the defense mechanism of the eye against oxidative influence effects, which may alleviate the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

Keywords

Iodine Iontophoresis Antioxidative capacity Tear fluid Keratoconjunctivits sicca Dry eye 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Paracelsus Gesellschaft is supported by the Land Oberösterreich, Abteilung Bildung, and the Eurothermen Resorts OÖ Thermenholding GmbH.

We would like to thank Sabine Schaubmair for administrative support, and the staff of the Ophthalmic Department of the Eurothermen Resort Bad Hall for providing and nursing of study patients.

References

  1. 1.
    Brewitt H, Sistani F (2001) Dry eye disease: the scale of the problem. Surv Ophthalmol 45:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE (2000) Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye. Arch Ophthalmol 118:1264–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schein OD, Munoz B, Tielsch JM, Bandeen-Roche K, West S (1997) Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 124:723–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stern ME, Beuermann RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC (1998) A unified theory of the role of the ocular surface in dry eye. Adv Exp Med Biol 438:643–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horwath-Winter J, Schmut O, Haller-Schober EM, Gruber A, Rieger G (2005) Iodide iontophoresis as a treatment for dry eye syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 89:40–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stern ME, Beuermann RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC (1998) The pathology of dry eye: the interactions between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea 17:584–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gogia R, Richer ST, Rose RC (1998) Tear fluid content of electrochemically active components including water soluble antioxidants. Curr Eye Res 17:257–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Debbasch C, Pisella PJ, Rat P (2000) Evaluation of free radical production by conjunctival impression cytology of patients treated with long-term antiglaucoma drugs or of contact lens wearers. J Fr Ophthalmol 23:239–244Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Augustin AJ, Spitznas M, Kaviani N, Meller D, Koch FHJ, Grus F, Göbbels MJ (1995) Oxidative reactions in the tear fluid of patients suffering from dry eyes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 233:694–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Versura P, Profazio V, Cellini M, Torreggiani A, Caramazza R (1999) Eye discomfort and air pollution. Ophthalmologica 213:103–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Horwath J, Schmut O (2000) The influence of environmental factors on the development of dry eye. Contactologica 22:21–29Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmut O, Gruber E, El-Shabrawi Y, Faulborn J (1994) Destruction of human tear proteins by ozone. Free Radic Biol Med 17:165–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schmut O, Anisari AN, Faulborn J (1994) Degradation of hyaluronate by the concerted action of ozone and sunlight. Ophthalmic Res 26:340–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mjstafa MG (1990) Biochemical basis of ozone toxicity. Free Rad Biol Med 9:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van der Vliet A, ONeill CA, Eiserich JP, Cross CE (1995) Oxidative damage to extracellular fluids by ozone and possible protective effects of thiols. Arch Biochem Biophys 321:43–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crouch RK, Goletz P, Snyder A, Coles WH (1999) Antioxidant enzymes in human tears. Ocular Pharmacol 7(3):253–256Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi M, Venturi A, Grossi L, Guidi A (2000) Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path 4:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Winkler R, Moser M, Buchberger W (1989) Einfluss oraler balneotherapeutisch dosierter Jodzufuhr auf Harn-und Blutplasma-Jodid sowie auf Glutathionspiegel und Aktivitäten korrespondierender Leberenzyme von Ratten. Z Phys Med Baln Klim 18:129–136Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moser M, Buchberger W, Mayer H (1991) Influence of an iodine-drinking cure on the antioxidative status of diabetes patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr 103:183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rieger G, Griebenow S, Winkler R, Stoiser E (2000) Der antioxidative Status (TAS) der Tränenflüssigkeit vor und nach kombinierten Kurbehandlungen in Bad Hall. Spektr Augenheilkd 14(6):319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muranov K, Poliansky N, Winkler R, Rieger G, Schmut O, Horwath-Winter J (2004) Protection by iodide of lens from selenite-induced cataract. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 241:146–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Winkler R, Moser M, Buchberger W (1989) Die Wirksamkeit von Jodid als Sauerstoff-Radikalfänger. Wiss Z Humboldt Univ Berlin R Med 38:76–79Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Winkler R, Moser M (1992) Jodid. Ein potentielles Antioxidans und Sauerstoffradikalfänger und seine Rolle bei Peroxidase-Reaktionen. Vitaminspur 7:124–134Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rieger G, Winkler R, Buchberger W, Moser M (1995) Iodine distribution in a porcine eye model following iontophoresis. Ophthalmologica 209:84–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bosch EH, VanDoorne H, DeVries S (2000) Lactoperoxidase system: the influence of iodide and the chemical and antimicrobial stability over the period of about 18 months. J Applied Microbiol 89(2):215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tatzber F, Griebenow S, Wonisch W, Winkler R (2003) Dual method for the determination of peroxidase activity and total peroxides-iodide leads to a significant increase of peroxidase activity in human sera. Analytical Biochemistry 316:147–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmut O, Horwath-Winter J, Rieger G, Winkler R, Klieber M, Loos W, Griebenow S (2006) Jodsole-Therapie aus ophthalmologischer und internistischer Sicht. 150 Jahre Landeskuranstalten, 55 Jahre Paracelsus-Institut, 50 Jahre Augenabteilung Bad Hall. Spektr Augenheilkd 20(3):150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hagmüller K, Trichtel F (1960) Autoradiographische Studien zur Jodanreicherung im Auge durch Iontophorese. Ophthalmologica 140:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pommer H (1955) The enrichment of the eye with iodine by iontophoresis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 67:596–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pommer H, Trichtel F (1956) Comparative studies on radioiodine distribution in the eye after iontophoretic and intravenous administration. Albrecht Von Graefe`s Arch Ophthalmol 158:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmut O, Rieger G, Faulborn J, Winkler R, Spitzenberger H, Trummer G (2000) Iodid schützt Bindehautzellen vor der Schädigung durch UV-Licht. Spektr Augenheilkd 14(4):214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schmut O, Horwath-Winter J, Rieger G, Winkler R, Trummer G, Spitzenberger H, Wachswender Ch (2004) Iodide protection from UVB-damage of human conjunctival fibroblasts. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 242:279–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Horwath-Winter J, Schmut O, Rieger R, Winkler R (2006) Iodide application by iontophoresis as adjuvant therapy in dry eye patients. In: Garg A, Sheppard JD, Donnenfeld ED, Meyer D, Mehta CK (eds) Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders. YAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, pp 294–306Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hughes L, Maurice DM (1984) A fresh look at iontophoresis. Arch Ophthalmol 102:1825–1829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hobden JA, Reidy JJ, OCallaghan RJ, Insler MS, Hill JM (1990) Ciprofloxacin iontophoresis for aminoglycoside-resistant pseudomonal keratitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 31:1940–1944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grossmann RE, Chu DF, Lee DA (1990) Regional ocular gentamicin levels after transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 31:909–916Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grossman R, Lee DA (1989) Transscleral and transcorneal iontophoresis of ketoconazole in the rabbit eye. Ophthalmology 96:724–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hill JM, Park NH, Gangorosa LP, Hull DS, Tuggle CL, Bowman K, Green K (1978) Iontophoresis of vidarabine monophosphate into rabbit eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 17:473–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Behar-Cohen FF, Parel JM, Pouliquen YThillaye-Goldenberg B, Goureau O, Heydolph S, Courtois Y, DeKozak Y (1997) Iontophoresis of dexamethasone in the treatment of endotoxin-induced-uveitis in rats. Exp Eye Res 65:533–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Voigt M, Kralinger M, Kieselbach G, Chapon P, Anagnoste S, Hayden B, Parel JM (2002) Ocular aspirin distribution: a comparison of intravenous, topical, and coulomb-controlled iontophoresis administration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3299–3306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eljarrat-Binstock E, Domb AJ (2006) Iontophoresis: A non-invasive ocular drug delivery. J Control Release 110(3):479–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hayden B, Jockovich ME, Murray TG, Kralinger MT, Voigt M, Hernandez E, Feuer W, Parel JM (2006) Iontophoretic delivery of carboplatin in a murine model of retinoblastoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(9):3717–3721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barza M, Peckman C, Baum J (1987) Transscleral iontophoresis of gentamicin in monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 28(6):1033–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barza M, Peckman C, Baum J (1987) Transscleral iontophoresis as an adjunctive treatment for experimental endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol 105:1418–1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rootman DS, Hobden JA, Jantzen JA, Gonzalez JR, O’Callaghan RJ, Hill JM (1988) Iontophoresis of tobramycin for the treatment of experimental pseudomonas keratitis in the rabbit. Arch Ophthalmol 106:262–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lam TT, Deepak PE, Zhu XA, Tso MOM (1989) Transscleral iontophoresis of dexamethasone. Arch Ophthalmol 107:1368–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eljarrat-Binstock E, Raiskup F, Stepensky D, Domb AJ, Frucht-Pery J (2004) Delivery of gentamicin to the rabbit eye by drug-loaded hydrogel iontophoresis. IOVS 45(8):2543–2548Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Griebenow S, Rieger G, Horwath-Winter J (2003) Eine neue Methode zur Bestimmung der antioxidativen Kapazität in der Tränenflüssigkeit. Spektr Augenheilk 17(5):227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Behar-Cohen FF, ElAouni A, Gautier S, David G, Davis J, Chapon P, Parel JM (2002) Transscleral coulomb-controlled iontophoresis of methylprednislolone into the rabbit eye: influence of duration of treatment, current intensity and drug concentration on ocular tissue and fluid levels. Exp Eye Res 74:51–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kar Man Choy C, Cho P, Chung WY, Benzie IFF (2001) Water soluble antioxidants in human tears: Effect of the collection method. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42(13):3130–3134Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sitaramamma T, Shivaji S, Rao GN (1998) Effect of storage on protein concentration of tear samples. Curr Eye Res 17:1027–1035CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rieger G, Winkler R, Stoiser E (1997) Zur Wirkungsdauer balneotherapeutischer Maßnahmen bei Patienten mit Beschwerden des trockenen Auges. Spektr Augenheilkd 11:255–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rieger G, Winkler R, Stoiser E, Landerl J (1997) Zur subjektiven Befindlichkeit von Patienten mit Beschwerden des “trockenen Auges” vor und nach Absolvierung von Jodkurbehandlungen in Bad Hall. Spektr Augenheilkd 11(2):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Griebenow S, Rieger G, Loos W (2009) Verbesserung des antioxidativen Schutzes der Tränenflüssigkeit durch Bad Haller Iodsole-Augenbesprühungen. Spektr Augenheilkd 23:12–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hellauer H (1972) Effect of iodine in an ERG-study on the isolated frog retina. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 161:63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Griebenow S, Rieger G, Horwath-Winter J, Schmut O (2006) Nachhaltigkeit der Erhöhung des wasserlöslichen antioxidativen Schutzmechanismus (ACW) in der nicht stimuliert gewonnenen Tränenflüssigkeit nach Iodid-Iontophoresebehandlungen in Bad Hall. Spektr Augenheilkd 20(1):6–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schmut O, Winkler R, Rieger G, Spitzenberger H, Trummer G (2002) Der Einfluss von Iodid auf die Proliferation humaner Bindehautfibroblasten. Spektr Augenheilkd 16(4):159–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Loos W, Griebenow S, Winkler R, Porta S (2006) Kureinzelbehandlungen beeinflussen pro-/antooxidatives Gleichgewicht. Phys Med Rehab Kuror 16:326–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bender T, Bariska J, Vaghy R, Gomez R, Kovacs I (2007) Effect of balneotherapy on the antioxidant system—a controlled pilot study. Archive of Medical Research 38:86–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Loos W, Griebenow S, Winkler R, Porta S (2007) Können Kurbehandlungen zur Stressverarbeitung beitragen? Phys Med Rehab Kuror 17:108–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Klieber M, Winkler R (2006) Trinkkuren mit Jodquellen. Phys Med Rehab Kuror 16:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schmut O, Rieger G, Faulborn J, Winkler R, Horwath J (1998) Iodid schützt Tränen vor der Zerstörung durch Ozon und UV-Licht. Spektr Augenheilkd 12(5):190–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schmut O, Rieger G, Winkler R, Griebenow S, Wachswender C, Horwath-Winter J (2004) Iodid schützt Hyaluronat vor oxidativem Stress. Spektr Augenheilkd 18(6):294–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rieger G (2001) Anti-oxidative capacity of various artifical tear preparations. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:222–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gebhard Rieger
    • 1
  • Manfred Klieber
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Schimetta
    • 3
  • Werner Pölz
    • 3
  • Sirid Griebenow
    • 1
  • Rudolf Winkler
    • 1
  • Jutta Horwath-Winter
    • 2
  • Otto Schmut
    • 2
  • Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner
    • 1
  1. 1.Paracelsus Society for Balneology and Iodine ResearchBad HallAustria
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Department of Applied Systems Research and StatisticsJohannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations