The effect of iodide iontophoresis on the antioxidative capacity of the tear fluid

  • Gebhard Rieger
  • Manfred Klieber
  • Wolfgang Schimetta
  • Werner Pölz
  • Sirid Griebenow
  • Rudolf Winkler
  • Jutta Horwath-Winter
  • Otto Schmut
  • Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner
Medical Ophthalmology



Environmental oxidative stress changing the properties of the tear fluid can lead to keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye syndrome). The aim of this study was to determine whether iodide iontophoresis influences the antioxidative capacity (ACW = water soluble antioxidative capacity) of the tear fluid, and to compare iodide iontophoresis with other balneotherapeutic measures.


This prospective study evaluated 92 patients in four groups. Twenty-four patients were treated with iodide iontophoresis, 24 with other balneotherapeutic methods. Twenty-five patients received iodide iontophoresis combined with other balneotherapeutic methods and 21 persons received no treatment (control). Unstimulated tear fluid, serum and urine were collected. ACW was determined photochemically in tear fluid and serum; iodine was measured in urine photometrically.


Iodide iontophoresis increases the ACW of the tear fluid but not the ACW of the serum. Other iodine therapies increase the ACW in serum but not in tear fluid. Iodine excretion in urine was increased in all treated groups compared to the control.


The increase of ACW in tear fluid after iodide iontophoresis can support the defense mechanism of the eye against oxidative influence effects, which may alleviate the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.


Iodine Iontophoresis Antioxidative capacity Tear fluid Keratoconjunctivits sicca Dry eye 



The Paracelsus Gesellschaft is supported by the Land Oberösterreich, Abteilung Bildung, and the Eurothermen Resorts OÖ Thermenholding GmbH.

We would like to thank Sabine Schaubmair for administrative support, and the staff of the Ophthalmic Department of the Eurothermen Resort Bad Hall for providing and nursing of study patients.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gebhard Rieger
    • 1
  • Manfred Klieber
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Schimetta
    • 3
  • Werner Pölz
    • 3
  • Sirid Griebenow
    • 1
  • Rudolf Winkler
    • 1
  • Jutta Horwath-Winter
    • 2
  • Otto Schmut
    • 2
  • Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner
    • 1
  1. 1.Paracelsus Society for Balneology and Iodine ResearchBad HallAustria
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Department of Applied Systems Research and StatisticsJohannes Kepler University LinzLinzAustria

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