IL-2 and IFN-gamma in the retina of diabetic rats
- 395 Downloads
The pathophysiology of the early events leading to diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood. It has been suggested that Inflammatory processes are involved in the development of the disease; however, the concentrations of tissue retinal inflammatory mediators and their possible alteration in diabetic retinopathy have not been described. The aim of this work was to study T-helper cell cytokine and chemokine profiles, and tyrosine nitration in retinal tissue of diabetic rats.
Cytokines (interleukin IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFa, GM-CSF, IFN-g), chemokines (MIP-1a, MIP-2, MIP-3a, MCP-1, GRO/KC, RANTES, Fractalkine), and tyrosine nitration were measured in retinal homogenate obtained from Long–Evans rats after 5 months of experimental diabetes.
The T-helper type 1 cytokines IL-2 and INF-gamma, in addition to NO production (measured as nitrotyrosine), were found to be significantly elevated in diabetic rat retina homogenates. None of the other cytokines and chemokines studied were affected by the diabetic condition.
Immunoregulatory cytokines belonging to the Th-1 group (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) were increased in the retina of experimental diabetic rats. Moreover, the nitrotyrosine formation (as an expression of increased NO production) was significantly elevated in the diabetic retina, supporting the concept of an inflammatory element in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
KeywordsDiabetic retinopathy IL-2 IFN-gamma Chemokine Cytokine
- 4.Miyamoto K, Khosrof S, Bursell SE, Rohan R, Murata T, Clermont AC, Aiello LP, Ogura Y, Adamis AP (1999) Prevention of leukostasis and vascular leakage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:10836–10841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Patel JI, Tombran-Tink J, Hykin PG, Gregor ZJ, Cree IA (2006) Vitreous and aqueous concentrations of proangiogenic, antiangiogenic factors and other cytokines in diabetic retinopathy patients with macular edema: Implications for structural differences in macular profiles. Exp Eye Res 82:798–806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Dmoszynska A, Kandefer-Szerszen M, Rolinski J, Legiec W, Kaminska T (1999) Influence of low dose rIL-2 treatment on endogenous cytokine production, expression of surface IL-2R and the level of soluble IL-2R in patients with minimal residual disease. Leuk Lymphoma 35:355–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Miranda M, Muriach M, Romá J, Bosch-Morell F, Genovés JM, Barcia J, Araiz J, Diaz-Llopis M, Romero FJ (2006) Oxidative stress in a model of experimental diabetic retinopathy. II. Peroxynitrite scavengers utility. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 80:27–32Google Scholar