Management of submacular hemorrhage with intravitreal versus subretinal injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
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To compare the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with intravitreal injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and gas versus ppV with subretinal injection of rtPA and intravitreal injection of gas.
Nonrandomized, retrospective, interventional, comparative consecutive series including 47 patients with submacular hemorrhage. Eighteen patients were treated with ppV, intravitreal injection of rtPA and 20% SF6 gas [group A: mean age 78 years, mean duration of symptoms 6.6 days, 15 age-related macular degeneration (AMD), three retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAMA)]. Twenty-nine patients were treated with ppV, subretinal injection of rtPA and intravitreal injection of SF6 gas (group B: mean age 75 years, mean duration of symptoms 5.9 days, 26 AMD, two RAMA, one blunt ocular trauma). The main outcome measure was complete displacement of submacular hemorrhage from the fovea.
Complete displacement of submacular hemorrhage was achieved in less patients in group A (22%) than in group B (55%) (p = 0.025). In group A, mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change was logMAR -0.14, standard deviation (SD) = 0.64, and in group B logMAR -0.32, SD = 0.68 without statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.2, Mann–Whitney test). Complications (retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and recurrence of submacular hemorrhage) were more frequent in group B than in group A.
ppV with subretinal injection of rtPA and intravitreal injection of gas was more effective than ppV with intravitreal injection of rtPA and gas in terms of complete displacement of submacular hemorrhage; however, it may be associated with a higher rate of postoperative complications. Functional improvement in the majority of patients suggests the absence of direct retinal toxicity of subretinally applied rtPA.
KeywordsAge-related macular degeneration Retinal arterial macroaneurysma Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Submacular hemorrhage
We thank Dipl.-Math. Elfriede Fritzer, Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics, University of Kiel for expert statistical advice.
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