Advertisement

Eye preference within the context of binocular functions

  • Walter H. EhrensteinEmail author
  • Birgit E. Arnold-Schulz-Gahmen
  • Wolfgang Jaschinski
Laboratory Investigation

Abstract

Background

Eye preference refers to an asymmetric use of the two eyes, but it does not imply a unitary asymmetry between the eyes. Many different methods are used to assess eye preference, including eyedness questionnaires and sighting tasks that require binocular and monocular alignment of a target through a hole in the middle of a card or funnel. The results of these coarse accounts of eye preference are useful as a first screening, but do not allow for graded quantification of the manifested asymmetry in binocular vision. Moreover, they often concern only a rather selective range of binocular functions. The aim of the present study was to further differentiate eye preference within the context of other binocular functions as measured in standard optometric tests, and to validate their relation to questionnaire data of eyedness.

Methods

Conventional accounts of eye preference (German adaptation of Coren’s questionnaire and a sighting task) were compared with various optometric tests of binocular function within a sample of 103 subjects. Examination included visual acuity and accommodation in each eye, stereoscopic prevalence, suppression due to binocular rivalry, fixation disparity (Mallett test).

Results

Sighting dominance was leftward in 32% and rightward in 68% of the cases and was highly correlated (Kendall’s τb=0.70) with eyedness. Further significant associations were restricted to stereoscopic prevalence which correlated with sighting dominance (τb=0.55), eyedness (τb=0.50), and rivalry dominance (τb=0.28).

Conclusion

Eye preference seems to be essentially reflected by eyedness, sighting dominance, and stereoscopic prevalence, but largely unrelated to fixation disparity, accommodation, and visual acuity.

Keywords

Eye preference Binocular functions Sighting dominance Stereoscopic prevalence Fixation disparity Rivalry suppression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Carola Reiffen and Anke Siefer assisted in data collection and analysis, Ute Lobisch in preparing the figures; Prof. Guntram Kommerell and Dr. Michael Wagner commented on an earlier draft. An anonymous reviewer made very constructive and most detailed suggestions for further improvement of the manuscript. We thank them all.

References

  1. 1.
    Annett M (1999) Eye dominance in families predicted by the right shift theory. Laterality 4:167–172Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold-Schulz-Gahmen BE, Siefer A, Ehrenstein WH (2004) Eye-dominance distributions differ between men and women. Perception 33(suppl):97cGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brackenridge CJ (1982) The contribution of genetic factors to ocular dominance. Behav Genet 12:319–325Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conover WJ (1999) Practical nonparametric statistics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coren S (1993) The lateral preference inventory for measurement of handedness, footedness, eyedness, and earedness: norms for young adults. Bull Psychon Soc 31:1–3Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coren S, Kaplan CP (1973) Patterns of ocular dominance. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 50:283–292Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crider BA (1944) A battery of tests for the dominant eye. J Genet Psychol 31:179–190Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davson H (1990) Physiology of the eye, 5th edn. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dodrill CB, Thoreson NS (1993) Reliability of the lateral dominance examination. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 15:183–190Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ehrenstein WH, Arnold-Schulz-Gahmen BE (1997) Ohr, Auge, Hand und Fuß: Bestimmung des individuellen Lateralitätsprofils. IfADo, Dortmund (http://www.ergonetz.de/lateralitaet/)
  11. 11.
    Ehrenstein WH, Wagner M (2004) Eye dominance and interocular stability of oculomotor behaviour during fixation on 2-D surface for restrained and unrestrained head postures. Perception 33(suppl):94bGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erdogan R, Ozdikici M, Aydin MD, Aktas O, Dane S (2002) Right and left visual cortex in healthy subjects with right- and left-eye dominance. Int J Neurosci 112:517–523Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gerling J, de Paz H, Schroth V, Bach M, Kommerell G (2000) Ist die Feststellung einer Fixationsdisparation mit der Mess- und Korrekturmethodik nach H.-J. Haase (MKH) verlässlich? Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 216:401–411Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haase HJ (1995) Zur Fixationsdisparation. Heidelberg: Verlag Optische Fachveröffentlichung GmbH (ISBN 3-922269-17-6)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Howard IP (2002) Seeing in depth, vol. 1. Basic mechanisms. Toronto: I. PorteousGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Howard IP, Rogers BJ (2002) Seeing in depth, vol. 2. Depth perception. Toronto: I. PorteousGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jaschinski W (2001) Methods for measuring the proximity–fixation–disparity curve. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 21:368–375Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khan AZ, Crawford JD (2001) Ocular dominance reverses as a function of gaze angle. Vis Res 41:1743–1748Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khan AZ, Crawford JD (2003) Coordinating one hand with two eyes: optimizing for field of view in a pointing task. Vis Res 43:409–417Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kommerell G, Schmitt C, Kromeier M, Bach M (2003) Ocular prevalence versus ocular dominance. Vis Res 43:1397–1403Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kromeier M, Schmitt C, Bach M, Kommerell G (2002) Bessern Prismen nach Hans-Joachim Haase die Augenprävalenz? Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 219:422–428Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mallett RF (1964) The investigation of heterophoria at near and a new fixation disparity technique. Optician 148:547–551Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mapp AP, Ono H, Barbeito R (2003) What does the dominant eye dominate? A brief and somewhat contentious review. Percept Psychophys 65:310–317Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matsumura I, Maruyama S, Ishikawa Y, Hirano R, Kobayashi K, Kohayakawa S (1983) The design of an open view autorefractor. In: Breining GM, Siegel IM (Eds), Advances in diagnostic visual optics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 36–42Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McBrien NA, Millodot M (1985) Clinical evaluation of the Canon Autoref R-1. Am J Optom Opt 62:786–792Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Menon RS, Ogawa S, Strupp JP, Ugurbil K (1997) Ocular dominance in human V1 demonstrated by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurophysiol 77:2780–2787Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miles W (1930) Ocular dominance in human adults. J Genet Psychol 3:412–429Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Porac C, Coren S (1975) Suppressive processes in binocular vision: ocular dominance and amblyopia. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 52:651–657Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Porac C, Coren S (1976) The dominant eye. Psychol Bull 83:880–897Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Porac C, Coren S (1981) Lateral preferences and human behavior. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reiss M, Reiss G (1997) Ocular dominance: some family data. Laterality 2:7–15Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rombouts AR, Barkhof F, Sprenger M, Valk J, Scheltens P (1996) The functional basis of ocular dominance: functional MRI (fMRI) findings. Neurosci Lett 221:1–4Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosenbach O (1903) Ueber monokulare Vorherrschaft beim binokularen Sehen. Münchener Medizin Wochenschr 30:1290–1292Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith EL III, Levi DM, Manny RE, Harwerth RS, White JM (1985) The relationship between binocular rivalry and strabismic suppression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 29:80–87Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    von Noorden GK (1990) Binocular vision and ocular motility. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wade NJ (1998) Early studies of eye dominances. Laterality 3:97–108Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Walls GL (1951) A theory of ocular dominance. Arch Ophthalmol 45:387–412Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter H. Ehrenstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Birgit E. Arnold-Schulz-Gahmen
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Jaschinski
    • 1
  1. 1.Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human FactorsUniversity of DortmundDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations