Journal of Neurology

, Volume 246, Issue 7, pp 540–543 | Cite as

Primitive reflexes in a case-control study of patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  • I. W. Tremont-Lukats
  • Gilda M. Teixeira
  • Dimas E. Hernández
Original communication

Abstract

This study estimated the frequency of nine primitive reflexes (PR) and assessed their possible clinical value in a group of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We studied 78 patients with human inmunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) infection in WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 and 81 matched seronegative controls. All participants were examined using a standardized neurological examination and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Cognitive impairment and PR was found in 36% of patients but in none of the controls (P < 0.0001; logistic regression odds ratio: 14.7). Overall, PR were 2–36 times more frequent in patients with HIV-1 infection. This association was stronger for the glabellar, snout, Rossolimo, and digital signs. At least two PR were observed in 92% of patients vs. 8% of controls (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 68%–100%; logistic regression odds ratio: 10.8). These data support the association of PR with cognitive decline in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection without overt neurological disease. Larger follow-up studies with multivariate techniques are needed to identify which PRs are useful as indicators of HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor complex and minor neurocognitive disorders.

Key words Primitive reflexes Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Case-control studies Rossolimo Reflex 

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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. W. Tremont-Lukats
    • 1
  • Gilda M. Teixeira
    • 2
  • Dimas E. Hernández
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792-5132, USA e-mail: itremont@facstaff.wisc.edu, Tel.: +1-608-2635443, Fax: +1-608-2630412US
  2. 2.Servicio de Medicina 2, Hospital Vargas de Caracas, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, VenezuelaVE

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