Spontaneous primary intraventricular hemorrhage: clinical data, etiology and outcome
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The clinical features, etiology, and neurological outcome in patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) have rarely been reported. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, complementary examinations, outcome, computed tomography (CT) blood amount, and ventricle size of 13 patients (mean age 60 years, five men). We defined PIVH as hemorrhage detected by CT in the ventricular system only. The major symptoms included headache (n = 13), decreased level of consciousness (n = 9), and nausea/vomiting (n = 7). The cause was unknown in five patients; and was associated with arterial hypertension in five, vascular malformations in two, and tumor in one, although arteriography was performed in only five patients. Outcomes were death in three, asymptomatic in six, mild disability in three, and moderate disability in one. Prognosis was not related to clinical or CT data. Clinical features can suggest the diagnosis of PIVH, but cerebral CT is required for confirmation.
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