Prognostic utility of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with stroke: a meta-analysis

  • Hongyu Liu
  • Jiaoqi Wang
  • Zhongxin XuEmail author



Conflicting findings have been reported on the prognostic significance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in patients with stroke. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic utility of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in stroke patients.


PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for potentially eligible studies until October 16, 2019. Observational studies investigating the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and prognosis of patients with stroke were eligible. Multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of poor functional outcome, all-cause mortality, and recurrence of stroke were pooled with the lowest versus the highest category of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level.


Eleven articles (ten studies) involving 6845 stroke patients satisfied our predefined inclusion criteria. Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was associated with an increased risk of poor functional outcome (RR 1.86; 95% CI 1.16–2.98), all-cause mortality (RR 3.56; 95% CI 1.54–8.25), and recurrence of stroke (RR 5.49; 95% CI 2.69–11.23). Sensitivity analysis further confirmed the above findings.


Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is significantly associated with poorer prognosis in stroke patients. Future prospective studies are warranted to verify the prognostic role and to examine the association in different subtypes of stroke.


25-hydroxyvitamin D Stroke Functional outcome All-cause mortality Meta-analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyChina-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

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