Post-traumatic taste disorders: a case series
- 241 Downloads
Since 1800s there are reports of post-traumatic anosmia, but few studies investigated post-traumatic gustatory deficit and adopted validated evaluation tests. Peripheral and/or central mechanisms may be involved in the genesis of post-traumatic gustatory dysfunction. Beyond a reduction/loss (hypogeusia/ageusia) of gustatory function following a trauma, qualitative taste changes (dysgeusia) may occur. Especially when persistent, taste deficits might be particularly relevant for patient’s quality of life and activities of daily life, but knowledge on this topic is limited. Fifty-three consecutive patients with previous head trauma were recruited. Every patient underwent a careful history taking and thorough olfactory and gustatory chemosensory testing by Sniffin’Sticks Extended test, Whole Mouth Test and Taste Strips Test. All patients had olfactory abnormalities (hyposmia: n = 10, functional anosmia: n = 43), while 10 of them (19%) showed taste deficits (dysgeusia: n = 3, dysgeusia with hypogeusia: n = 1, hypogeusia: n = 5, ageusia: n = 1). Here, we report clinical and neuroimaging data and detailed description of four meaningful cases representing central and peripheral injury patterns. Chemosensory evaluation might be useful to explore taste disorder, a still neglected and underestimated sequela of head trauma.
KeywordsAnatomical correlation Anosmia Head trauma Olfaction Taste
The authors would like to thank Dr Trotier and Dr Faurion for the helpful comments on the MRI findings of one patient. The authors would like to thank also Mr Giovanni Caloi for the anatomical drawing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest and no disclosures relevant to the manuscript.
This study was performed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.
All patients gave consent prior to participation to the study.
This work was not supported by any funding.
- 7.Landis BN, Lacroix JS (2006) Postoperative/posttraumatic gustatory dysfunctions. In: Hummel T, Welge-Lüssen A (eds) Taste and smell. Un update, Adv Otorhinolaryngol Basel, Karger, vol 63, pp 242–254Google Scholar
- 14.Breslin P, Huang L (2006) Human taste: peripheral anatomy, taste transduction, and coding. In: Hummel T, Welge-Lüssen A (eds) Taste and smell. Un update, Adv Otorhinolaryngol Basel, Karger, vol 63, pp 152–190Google Scholar
- 16.Small DM (2006) Central gustatory processing in humans. In: Hummel T, Welge-Lüssen A (eds) Taste and smell. Un update, Adv Otorhinolaryngol Basel, Karger, vol 63, pp 191–220Google Scholar
- 21.Welge-Lüssen A, Hummel T (2014) Management of smell and taste disorders: a practical guide for clinicians. Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart-Thieme Medical Publisher Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 22.Kobal G, Klimek L, Wolfensberger M, Gudziol H, Temmel A, Owen CM, Seeber H, Pauli E, Hummel T (2000) Multicenter investigation of 1,036 subjects using a standardized method for the assessment of olfactory function combining tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 257(4):205–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Hummel T, Kobal G, Gudziol H, Mackay-Sim A (2007) Normative data for the “Sniffin’ Sticks” including tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds: an upgrade based on a group of more than 3000 subjects. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264(3):237–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Satoh-Kuriwada S, Kawai M, Noriakishoji Sekine Y, Uneyama H, Sasano T (2012) Assessment of umami taste sensitivity. J Nutr Food Sci 10:003Google Scholar