Journal of Neurology

, Volume 264, Supplement 1, pp 16–17 | Cite as

Vergence-accommodation conflict in virtual reality displays induces phoria adaptation

  • Marius M. PaulusEmail author
  • Andreas Straube
  • Thomas Eggert
Letter to the Editors

Dear Sirs,

That heterophoria, a misalignment of the visual axes under monocular viewing, adapts to conflict of accommodation and vergence, is known best in the context of prism adaption. With the emerging of three dimensional displays the vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) became interesting as a possible source of visual stress while or immediately after watching 3D-television [3, 4, 11]. Karpicka and Howarth [5] examined the adaptation of the phoria angle caused by the VAC and found a significant adaptation of the phoria angle for uncrossed disparity. We further investigated the role of VAC in phoria adaptation for crossed as well as uncrossed disparity. Instead of a clinical measurement to determine the phoria angle, we developed an automated and objective version of the alternating cover test using a video-based tracking device in combination with shutter glasses. With this approach we present a novel method for investigating phoria adaptation with an active stereo setup...


Binocular Viewing Monocular Viewing Adaptation Gain Optical Prism Fixation Disparity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The study was supported by the German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research: Grant Code 01 EO 0901; DSGZ).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors state that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The experiment accorded with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marius M. Paulus
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas Straube
    • 2
  • Thomas Eggert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders-DSGZLudwig-Maximilians UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Neurology and German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders-DSGZLudwig-Maximilians UniversityMunichGermany

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