Journal of Neurology

, Volume 264, Issue 1, pp 21–31 | Cite as

Frenchay dysarthria assessment (FDA-2) in Parkinson’s disease: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version

  • Rita Cardoso
  • Isabel Guimarães
  • Helena Santos
  • Rita Loureiro
  • Josefa Domingos
  • Daisy de Abreu
  • Nilza Gonçalves
  • Serge Pinto
  • Joaquim Ferreira
Original Communication


Hypokinetic dysarthria is a common symptom in those with Parkinson’s disease (PD); there is currently no standardized or validated tool for assessing speech in this population. To translate into European Portuguese (EP) the FDA-2 and perform a cultural adaptation followed by an evaluation of its psychometric properties in PD in a sample of people with PD in different stages of disease progression. Translation, back-translation, experts’ analysis, pre-test and final version test were performed. The EP version of the FDA-2 was administered to 80 people with PD (PwP) with dysarthria, feasibility and acceptability, reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater reliability) and validity (face and convergent) were measured. Overall, the EP-FDA-2 proved to be similar to the original demonstrating the same conceptual meanings, semantics, idiomatic and score equivalences. It has good feasibility (missing data <5 %), acceptability (ceiling and floor effects <15 %), a high reliability of the total score (0.94), an excellent inter-rater agreement for the total score (0.96) and moderate to large construct validity for 81 % of its items. It is well correlated with the gold standard for disease severity assessment in PD, the MDS-UPDRS. The EP-FDA-2 has shown the salient features of a valid tool that can be used by speech and language therapists in the assessment of dysarthria in PD in clinical practice as in the research field.


Parkinson’s disease Dysarthria Scale Speech Parkinsonism 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All human and animal studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefor been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Cardoso
    • 1
    • 2
  • Isabel Guimarães
    • 1
    • 3
  • Helena Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rita Loureiro
    • 2
  • Josefa Domingos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daisy de Abreu
    • 1
  • Nilza Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Serge Pinto
    • 4
  • Joaquim Ferreira
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Pharmacological Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Campus Neurológico SéniorTorres VedrasPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Speech Therapy, Escola superior de Saúde de AlcoitãoEstorilPortugal
  4. 4.Aix-Marseille Université/CNRS, Laboratoire Parole et Language (LPL)Aix-en-ProvenceFrance

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