Journal of Neurology

, Volume 263, Issue 12, pp 2446–2455 | Cite as

Clinical characteristics and outcomes between children and adults with anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor encephalitis

  • Qi Huang
  • Yuan Wu
  • Rongfa Qin
  • Xing Wei
  • Meigang Ma
Original Communication


Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an acute neurological disorder affecting children and adults. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes between children and adults with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and to assess the probable risk factors. In this observational study, patients who tested positive for anti-NMDAR antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid were enrolled. The patients were divided into children and adults group on the basis of age (whether <16 or not). Clinical outcomes were assessed at onset, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the patients received treatment and were scored based on whether they required hospitalization and intensive care. A total of 15 children and 14 adults were examined. The adults more likely manifested status epilepticus, central hypoventilation, and pneumonia but less likely exhibited movement disorder than the children did. All of the patients were subjected to corticosteroid treatment, 11 children and 9 adults were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, and only the adults received plasma exchange or cyclophosphamide. The children recovered faster than the adults, especially in the first 6 months. Risk factors included age, status epilepticus, changes in consciousness, central hypoventilation, and pneumonia. Adults exhibit worse outcomes than children mostly because of status epilepticus.


Anti-NMDAR encephalitis Children Adults Prognosis Status epilepticus 



This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation, China (81360201).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest


Ethical standards

This study was conducted in compliance with the ethical standards.

Informed consent

Written consents were obtained from the patients.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qi Huang
    • 1
  • Yuan Wu
    • 1
  • Rongfa Qin
    • 1
  • Xing Wei
    • 1
  • Meigang Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, First Affiliated HospitalGuangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina

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