Journal of Neurology

, Volume 263, Issue 4, pp 669–676 | Cite as

The impact of regular lifestyle behavior in migraine: a prevalence case–referent study

  • Yohannes W. WoldeamanuelEmail author
  • Robert P. Cowan
Original Communication


Regular lifestyle behaviors (RLBs) of sleep, exercise, mealtime pattern and hydration status independently affect migraine occurrence. We aimed herein to evaluate the differences in migraine occurrence among participants who do and do not maintain the RLB triumvirate. Cases of chronic migraine (CM) and referents of episodic migraine (EM) ≥aged 15 years with charts regularly documenting RLB notes were continuously enrolled from a retrospective case–referent cohort study performed on electronic chart review from January 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 at the Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program. Association between RLB prevalence and migraine occurrence was studied. 175 CM and 175 EM patients were enrolled (mean age 44.4 years, 22 % males). Migraine was diagnosed according to the ICHD-3 beta criteria, and was confirmed by a Headache Specialist attending the Clinic. The CM cohort (22 %) exhibited less RLB than the EM cohort (69 %), with crude odds ratio of 0.13 (95 % confidence interval or CI 0.08–0.21). The adjusted odds ratio and adjusted relative risk between RLB+, Meds+ (those taking medication) and CM were 0.67 (95 % CI 0.32–1.40) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.43–1.28), indicating no significant effect modification. Engaging in regular lifestyle behavior helps quell chronic migraine.


Migraine Regular lifestyle behavior Chronic migraine Episodic migraine Sleep:exercise Mealtime 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

415_2016_8031_MOESM1_ESM.doc (80 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 79 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program, Department of Neurology and Neurological SciencesStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program, Department of Neurology and Neurological SciencesStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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